Lnyxacarus radovskyi

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Lnyxacarus radovskyi
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Lnyxacarus radovskyi</b></i></span><span style="font-size: large;"><b> Tenorio, 1974</b></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>(Figure 5-34 through 5-35)</b></span></p> &nbsp; <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Lynx</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = for the host from which the first species in the genus was described and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> for mite, along with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> for Dr. Radovsky of the Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felistrophorus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Tenorio, 1974) Fox, 1977.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was originally described by Radord (1951) for specimens collected from a Lynx in Georgia, USA. The species typically collected from cats was described as a new species by Tenorio (1974) using specimens that shee examined that had been collected from cats in Hawaii.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Infestations with Lynxacarus radovskyi have been reported in cats from southern Texas (Craig </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, 1993); southern Florida (Greve and Gerrish, 1981), the Florida Keys (Foley, 1991), and Puerto Rico (Fox, 1977). The mite has also been reported from Hawaii (Tenorio, 1974); Fiji (Munro and Munro, 1979), and Australia (Bowman and Domrow, 1978). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> This hair-clasping mite is found clining to the hair of the cat (Fig. 5-34). The large eggs are attached to the hair of the cat. The larvae, nymphs, and adult are equipped with sternal plates that encirlce the hair, and the first two sets of legs “mopnorail” the mites along the hair shaft (Foley, 1991). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The tan mites which are less than 0.5 mm in length can be identified by their typical laterally compressed shape and by being found clinging to the hairs (Fig. 5-35). The male mites have greatly enlarged fourth pair of legs. The adult mites can be specifically identified as </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovski</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> by the observation of the anteriorly directed bridge on the propodosomal plate that contacts the head plat of the mite which is lacking on the other species that has been reported from felines, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>morlani</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> from the bobcat (Greve and Gerrish, 1981). The species that </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">most resembles is </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>mustelae</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> recovered from the least weasel (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Mustela</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nivalis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">), and to be distinguished from this species, a careful examination of the shape and position of the dorsal plates must be performed (Tenorio, 1974). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle is very poorly described. The large eggs (about 200 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m in length) produce a six-legged larval stage. The next stage in the lif cycle is a nymph, which lacks the characteristic bridge on the propodosomal plate. The adult males and females are found clining to the hairs. Foley (1991a) found that the mites were most commonly found on the tail head, tail tip, and perineal area., an that heavily parasitized cats had whole body involvement with a haircot that appeared “peppered” and which felt granular. There has been no work examining the amount of time required for adult mites to develop from the egg. It is assumed that transmission occurs by direct contact. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL SIGNS AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Foley (1991a) described a large number of signs associated with infestation with this parasite. Most commonly seen was a dry, dull, and rust-colored haircoat. The next most common signs were gastrointestinal disturbances, including vomiting, constipation, rectal irritation or prolapse, and hairballs, which he felt was due to the excess grooming induced by the infestation. Also noted were gingivitis, anorexia, restlessness, fever, and weight loss.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>DIAGNOSIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The mites can be visualized on the skin using a head loupe or magnifying glass. Microscopic examination will reveal the typically morphology of the mites, usually found attached to hairs.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Craig </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. (1991) report that two treatments with a pyrethrin-based miticidal shampoo appeared to eliminate the infestation, but that the cat in this case was treated four times at weekly intervals. Foley (1991a) reports that pyrethrin products and lime-sulfur dips were both capable of clearing infestations. Foley (1991a) also noted that ivermectin at 300 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">g/kg administered subcutaneously was highly efficacious when administered to the cats for other purposes. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Foley (1991a) reported on a epizootic of lynxacariasis in cats in the Florida Keys where over 300 mites were treated in a single year. Most other reports have dealt with one or two cases from isolated island cat populations; Fox (1977) reported that the infestaion was common in cats in Puerto Rico. It is assumed that the parasite is transmitted between cats by direct transmission, although Craig </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. (1993) reported that the cat that they observed in sourthern Texas had been sleeping in packing material that had accompanied a package tht the owners had received from Hawaii.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> It is not known that the species in cats is restricted to the feline host, but as of this time </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> has not been reported from other hosts.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Foley (1991b) reports that one client with a heavily parasitized cat developed a papular forearm rash that cleared after the infestation of the cat was treated.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL AND PREVENTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> It is necessary to separate infested cats in order to prevent further spread of the infestation to other cats in the household. When pets have vacationed in areas where this parasite is common, it needs to be considered as part of the differential if any dermatological problems are noted in these animals.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bowman WL, Domrow R. 1978. The cat fur-mite (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">) in Australia. Austral Vet J 54:403-404.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Craig TM, Teel PD, Dubuisson LM, Dubuisson RK. 1993. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infestation in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:613-614.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Foley RH. 1991a. An epizootic of a rare fur mite in an Island’s cat population. Fel Pract 19:17-19.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Foley, RH. 1991b. Parasitic mites of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 13:783-800.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fox I. 1977. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felistrophorus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, a new genus of mites on cats in Puerto Rico (Acarina: Listrophoridae). Proc Entomol Soc Wash 79:242-244.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Greve JH, Gerrish RR. 1981. Fur mites (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">) from cats in Florida. Fel Pract 11:28-30.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Munro R, Munro HMC. 1979. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> on cats in Fiji. Austral Vet J 55:90.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Radford CD. 1951. Two new genera of parasitic mites (Acarina: Laelaptidae and Listrophoridae). Parasitology 41:102-104.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Tenorio JM. 1974. A new species of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) from </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>catus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the Hawaiian Islands. J Med Ent 11:599-604.</span></p> &nbsp; <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-34. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Hiars from a naturallay infested cat with many mite present (Photograph courtesy of Dr. Robert Foley).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-35. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynxacarus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>radovskyi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Adult mite clinging to the hair of a cat.</span></p> &nbsp;
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