Notoedres cati

Revision for “Notoedres cati” created on June 25, 2014 @ 00:09:06

Title
Notoedres cati
Content
<p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Notoedres cati</b></i></span><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Hering, 1838) Railliet, 1893</b></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>(Figures 5-29 through 5-32)</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Noto</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = back and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>edres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = seat, referring to the dorsal location of the anus, along with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> for the feline host.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, Hering, 1838; </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>scabiei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> var. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Gerlach, 1857); </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caniculi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> of Gerlach, 1857</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> has been known as a parasite of cats for several centuries. Early on, it was considered a variety or small form of Sarcoptes scabiei of man and the dog. Then in 1893, Railliet defined the genus as </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres.</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Fain (1965) placed the species that is found to infest rabbits, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caniculi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, Gerlach, 1857 in synonomy with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. The genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> mainly parasitizes rats and bats; a species has been reported from primates. Carnivores from which specimens of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> have been recovered include members of the Felidae and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Nasua</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nasua</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the Coatimundi (Fain, 1965).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Notoedric mange has been reported in cats in Europe (Bigler </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1984; Fabbrinni, 1994; Hartmannova and Mouka, 1990; Svalastoga </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1980; Tudury and Lorenzoni, 1987); the Middle East (Rak, 1972); India (Yathiraj </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1994); Africa (Zumpf, 1961); Japan (Ogata </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1980); Indonesia (Sangvaranond, 1979); Australia (Wilson-Hanson and Prescott, 1982), North America (Foley, 1991a), and South America (Larsson, 1989).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The mites live in burrows in the epidermis of the cat where they create rather deep burrows that on occasion are below the stratum corneum.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> can be recognized by their small size and typical sarcoptiform pretarsi with a long, unbranched pedicel (Fig. 5-29). The most characteristic feature is the dorsal anus which differentiates this mite from </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>scabiei </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">(Figs 5-30 &amp; 5-31).</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The adult male has sucker-like feet on the first, second, and fourth pairs of legs; the female has sucker-like feet only on the first two pairs of legs. The adults measure 200 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m x 240 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m and are round in appearance with very short legs. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> produce deep burrows within the dermis of infested cats (Foley, 1991b). The life cycle of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is considered to be similar to that of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>scabiei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, but there has been no detailed description of the life cycle of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Schuurmans-Stekhoven (1921) described trhe morphology of the larva and the adult female of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. He noted that the larva only had 6 legs and that only the first two pair of legs ended in the sucker-like appendages. He gave the length of the larva as between 87 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m and 166 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m with a width of around 80 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m. The measurments for the nymphal stage were 168 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m to 210 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m in length by 130 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m to 183 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m in width. Meaurements for two female specimens were 234 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m x 168 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m and 216 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m by 192 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">m.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Gordon </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., (1943) examined the life cycle of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the white rat. It is expected that th elife cycle that occurs with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is similar to that which they described for </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>notoedres.</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The females of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> lays eggs in burrows in the epidermis; sometimes the female excavates a small cave and lays a small semicercal of eggs. The number of eggs per tunnel may vary from 1 1 to 25. Females lay three to four eggs each day. The eggs normally hatch 4 to 5 days after oviposition. After the larva hatches from the egg, it typically leaves the the tunnel where it was born and moves to the surface of the skin. These larvae migrate about on the skin and then prepare a molting burrow, i.e., the larvae stop their migration and dig a small burrow in the skin (This takes between 25 minutes to 4 ½ hours once they begin digging.) and crawl inside. Once inside the molting burrow, the larvae stay there for four to five days before they are ready to molt to the first nymphal stage; this molting takes an additional two days. About 5 to 7 days are spent as a larva. The nymphs leave the larval molting burrow and wander off to find another place in which they excavate a second burrow. These burrows are in the stratum corneum and are only just deep enough to cover the mite. In fact, the posterior tip of the nymph often can be seen protruding through the entrance to the burrow. After a couple days days in this new burrow, the nymph again undergoes ecdysis to become a second nymphal stage after having spent about three to five days in the first nymphal stage. After ecdysis, the second nymphal stage goes out and digs a third molting burrow where it molts to the adult stage. About 3 to 5 days are spent in this second nymphal stage. Adults can appear as early as 12 days after the larva hatches from the egg. After molting to adults, the female typically stays in the nymphal molting burrow, but males tend to leave to look for females. When males locate a female, they tunnel down to the female where copulation occurs. The life span of the related mite, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcoptes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>scabiei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, is thought to be about 2 months. In the case of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, it is the larvae and nymphs that are typically transferred between hosts.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PATHOGENESIS AND CLINICAL SIGNS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats infested with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> typically present with lichenification of the skin on the ear tips, face, and distal extremities (Foley, 1991a; Foley, 1991b; Ribbeck, 1992) . The reactions can be severe and in young cats can lead to death (Ribbeck, 1992). Clinical signs include intense pruritis, alopecia, and the formation of crusts on the skin (Fig 5-32). Young and chronically infested cats can become debilitated, and cats can present with leucocytosis and relative and absolute eosinophilia (Foley, 1991a). Foley (1991a) reports that skin biopsy revealed the epidermal penetration of the skin by mites and that the skin was reactive, acanthotic, and hyerkeratotic. Cats may undergo self-mutilation. Foley (1991a) reports that out of 150 cases seen in an epizootic area in the Florida Keys, all cats presented with pruritus, self-mutilation dermatitis, and had gray crusts and scale on the skin; weight loss, fever, and alopecia was observed in half the infested cats. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Foley (1991a) successfully treated over 500 infested cats with notoedric mange. The treatment typically consisted of the oral or subcutaneous administration of ivermectin (300 μg ivermectin per kilogram body weight). When necessary, cats were also treated with penicillin G benzathine (10,000 U per pound body weight) for secondary bacterial infections and with coricosteroids (dexamethasone at 0.15 mg per pound body weight) to alleviate self-mutilation and hypersensitivity reactions. Corticosteroids should be given only after treatment of the mite population has been initiated. Pyrethrin shampoos were used to cleanse the cats and soften and remove skin scales. Lime-sulfur dips (2.5%) were found to be effective when used weekly for six to 8 weeks. Other authors have also reported success with the administration of ivermectin to cats infested with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> with doses ranging between 200 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">g to 1000 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">g ivermectin per kilogram body weight (Bigler </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1984; Fukase </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1991; Hartmannova and Mouka, 1990; Olivia and Baldi, 1988; Quintavalla </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1985; and Yathiraj </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1994); the only side affect noted in these treatements was diarrhea in one cat receiving 1,000 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">g ivermectin per kg body weight.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Ivermectin toxicity associated with treating notoedric mange has been reported. Tudury and Lorenzoni (1987) treated nine cases of notoedric mange in 60-day-old kittens with 400 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA';"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">g ivermectin per kilogram body weight administered subcutaneously. Three of the treated kittens had signs of ivermectin toxicity, i.e., motor incoordination, hyperaethesia, hyperkinesis, mydriasis, and protrusion of the nictitating membrane. These signs disappeared after 36 hours with the affected kittens being treated with a magnesioum sulphate cathartic. In all nine treated cases, mites were cleared after treatment.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> English (1960) had success in treating cats with a 0.5% solution of malathion, two times, 7 or 8 days apart. It was important that this be done under veterinary supervision because atropine may have to be administered to some cats that react to the treatment.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Mites of the genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are found in cats, rabbits, mice, and rats, bats, and in one primate (Galago demidovi pusillus). Fain (1965) believed that the species reported to cause notoedric mange in rabbits was indistinguishable from that causing disease in cats; thus, Fain synonimized the species from rabbits with that from cats. There has been no published work on the transfer of the mite between rabbits and cats; but it would suggest that cats may acquire their infestations from hunting rabbits. The species in mice and other rodents appear morphologically different from the species that is found on cats and rabbits. Once the organism is in a cat population, it can be highly contagious and spread rapidly between cats and between households (Foley, 1991a).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is likely to be tyrasmitted from infested cats to rabbits. This parasite has also been recorded from </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Nasua</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nasua</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the coatimundi (Fain, 1965). Many members of the Feliudae have been found infested with this parasite: </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pardalis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the ocelot (Pence </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1995); </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concolor</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>coryi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the Florida panther (Maehr </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1995); </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Panthera</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>tigris</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>altaica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, a captive tiger (Malecki and Balcerak, 1988); </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rufus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the bobcat (Pence </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1982, Penner and Parke, 1954); </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynx</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>lynx</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the European lynx (Dobias, 1981); </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncia</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>uncia</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, snow leopards (Fletcher, 1978), and Acinonyx jubatus, the cheetah (Young </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1972). Thus, it would appear that cats may serve as potential sources of infestation for other feline hosts.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Foley (1991a) reports that clients owning a cat with notoedric mange developed papular and pruritic rash on their arms and foreartms that clears when washed with lime sulfer (the same treatment administered to the cat). Chakrabarti (1986) describes an unusual outbreak of notoedric mange in a group of individuals in South Calcutta, India. In this outbreak, 48 individuals lived and worked together in the same building that housed 35 cats. One of the cats was taken to the University veterinary clinic and the cat was noted to be infested with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. It was then decided to examine the household of the owner. It was discovered that 30 of the 35 cats were infested with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, and 30 of the individuals living in the building showed signs of notoedric mange, and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was recovered from the skin of 15 of these individuals. Most of the lesions appeared on the hands and legs, but lesions were also noted on the face, fingers, and thighs. Feline associated mange has also been reported from humans in Japan and Cszechoslovakia (Ito </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1968; Nesvadba, 1967). Household outbreaks of feline scabies have also been reported in Germany (Haufe </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1966). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL AND PREVENTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Control would be by the attempted prevention of the introduction of an already infested cat into an environment where the mite is not present. Similarly, it is possible that cats might become infected by coming into contact with rabbits, either through hunting or through shared living quarters. Thus, attempts must be made to prevent contact with other infected animals. Once a cat is identifeid as infested, it is important that it be separated from animals that are not infested until it is free of mites. Owners need to be cautioned of the potential spread to other hosts and to themselves.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bigler B, Waber S, Pfister K. 1984. Erste erfogversprechende Ergebnisse in der Behandlung von </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> mit Ivermectin. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 126:365-367.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Chakrabarti A. 1986. Human notoedric scabies from contact with cats infested with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Int J Dermatol 25:646-648.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dobias J. 1981. Successful treatment of lynx for scabies (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">). </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">In</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">: Verhandlungsberichte des XVI Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere 26 30 June, 1974, Erfurt. Ippen R, Schroder HD (eds) Akademie Verlag., Jena</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">English PB. 1960. Notoedric mange in cats, with observations on treatmnet with malathion. Austal Vet J 36:85-88.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fabbrinin F. Rogna notedrica gerneralizzata in un gatto. Summa. 11:61-62. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fain A. 1965. Notes sur le genre </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Tailliet, 1893 (Sarcoptidae: Sarcoptiformes). Acarologia 7:321-342.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fletcher KC. 1978. Notoedric mange in a litter of snow leopards. JAVMA 173:1231-1232.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Foley RH. 1991a. A notoedric mange epizootic in an island’s cat population. Fel Pract 19:8-10.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Foley RH. 1991b. Parasitic mites of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 13:783-800.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fukase T, Kajiwara T, Sugano H, Shikata R, Chinone S, Itagaki H. 1991. Ivermectin treatment of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infestations in cats. J Vet Med Japan 44:41-45.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gordon RM, Unsworth K, Seaton DR. 1943. The development and transmission of scabies as studied in rodent infections. Ann Trop Med Parasit 37:174-194.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hartmannova B, Mouka J. 1990. Lé</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MultinationalA Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">ení králík</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MultinationalA Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, ko</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MultinationalA Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">ek, nutrií a lišek posti</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MultinationalA Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">ených invazemi nematod</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MultinationalA Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> a záko</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MultinationalA Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">ek ivermectinem. Verterinarstvi 40:122-123.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Haufe U, Meyer D, Hhafe F. 1966. Katzen scabies bein Menmschen hervorgerufen durch eine an Sarcoptesraude und Trichopyte erkrankte katze. Dermatol Wochenschr 152"9767-978.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ito K, Ito Y, Kondo S, et al******. 1968. Animal scabies in humans. Bull Pharmacocological Resch Inst 77:1-3.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Larsson CE. 1989. Dermatologia veterinaria. I. Dermatites parasitarias dos carnivoros domesticos: sartnas sarcxoptrica, notoedrica e otoacariase. Com Cine Fac Med Vet Zootec Univ Sao Paulo 13:7-17.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Maehr DS, Greiner EC, Lanier JE, Murphy D. 1995. Notoedric mange in the Florida panther (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concolor</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>coryi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">). J Wildl Dis 31:251-254.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Malecki G, Balcerak J. 1988. ***************** Med Wet 44:466-467.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nesvadba J. 1967. Notoedric mange as a parasitological, public health and economic problem. Acta Univ Agric Brno, Fac Vetr 36:521-526.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ogata M (*****ET AL*****). 1980. Two feline cases of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">infestation. J Jap Vet Med Assoc 33:276-279.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Olivia G, Baldio L. 1988. Impiego dell’ivermectina in alcune endo ed ectoparassitosi del gatto. Act Med Vet 34:471-477.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Pence DB, Mathews FD, Windberg LA. 1982. Notoedric mange in the bobcat, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rufus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, from soth Texas. J Wildl Dis 18:47-50.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Pence DB, Tewes ME, Shindle DB, Dunn DM. 1995. Notoedric mange in an ocelot (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pardalis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">) from southern Texas. J Widl Dis 31:558-561.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Quintavalla F, Carnevali G, Iotto G. 1985. L’impiego della ivcermectina nella rogna notoedrica del gatto. Obvit Doc Vet 4(4): 85-86.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Railliet A. 1893. Traité de zoologie médicale et Africole. Asselin and Houzeau, Paris.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Rak H. 1972. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Iran. Entomol Monthly Mag 108:189.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ribbeck R. 1992. Parasitosen. In: Krankheiten der Katze. Schmidt V, Horzinek MC (eds). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, pp 384-473.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Sangvaranond A. 1979. Mange infestation in domestic animals (Acarina: Sarcoptidae, Psorptidae and Demodicidae) in Bogor and vicinity, West Java, Indonesia. BIOTROP Speical Publication 6: 45.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Schuurmans Stekhoven JH, Notokworo RM. Zur Biologie der Krätzmilben. Verh Konink Akad Wetensch Amsterdam 21(2): 1-152.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Svalastoga E, Mølbak I, Kristensen S, Grymer J. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">: et memento.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Tudury EA. Lorenzoni OD. 1987. Efeitos adversos do ivermectin em tres gatinhos Siamese com sarna notedrica. Riv Cent Cien Rrurais, Univ Fed Santa Maria 17:275-281.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wilson-Hanson SL, Prescott CW. 1982. A survey for parasites in cats. Aust Vet J 59:194.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Yathiraj S, Thimmappa Rai M, Jayagopala Reddy NR, Muralidhara A. 11994. Treatment of scabies in a cat with ivermectin - a case report. Ind Vet J 71:596-597.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Young E, Zumpf F, Whyte IJ. 1972. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Hering, 1838) infestation of the cheetah: preliminary report. J S Afr Vet Med Assoc 43:205.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Zumpf F. 1961. The arthropod parasites of vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara (Ethiopian region). Vol !. Chelicerata. Publ S Afr Inst Med Res 9:1-457.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-29. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><b>Notoedres cati. </b></i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Sarcoptiform long and unsegmeted pretarus.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-30. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><b>Notoedres cati</b></i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>. </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Adult female ventral view.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-31. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><b>Notoedres cati. </b></i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Dorsal view of adult female showing the dorsally situated anus.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-32. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Notoedric mange.</span><span style="font-size: medium;">Cat with severe crusting lesions due to </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Photograph courtesy of Dr. Robert Foley)</span></p>
Excerpt


OldNewDate CreatedAuthorActions
June 25, 2014 @ 00:09:06 Anastasia Bowman

Comments are closed.