Cheyletiella blakei

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Cheyletiella blakei
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Cheyletiella</b></i></span><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>blakei</b></i></span><span style="font-size: large;"><b> Smiley, 1970</b></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>(Figures 5-20 through 5-21)</b></span></p> &nbsp; <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyle</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = lips and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>tiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, a diminuitive meaning that this is smaller than </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>tia</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> or </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>tea</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">; along with blakei for Dr. D.F. Blake, Department of Biology, Walla Walla College, Washington.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> None.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> In 1878, Mégnin was the first to describe adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> mites, and he theorized that these mite preyed on other mites (Merchant, 1990); hence, he gave them the scientific name </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Bronswijk and Kreek, 1976). It has been demonstrated, however, that members of this genus are true "mange" mites and not predatory on other mites (Merchant, 1990). The mite genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was erected by Canestrini in 1885 to contain the genus described by Mégnin in 1878 as </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. In the beginning, there were some inconsistencies in the spelling of the generic name: </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheiletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Bronswijk and Kreek, 1976). Eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species were not described until 1917. They were "...fixed to a hair... elongated, resembling the eggs of a louse in general appearance, but minute, and with a very delicate cuticle." (Hirst, 1917). Reed (1961) reported "nit-like objects" on the hair which could be interpreted as being either mites or eggs (Ewing, 1967). Hirst (1917) was the first to report that </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> occurred on cats. This was follwed by several other reports (Smiley, 1970) that recognized </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, as </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitovorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, occuring on cats. Ewing </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. (1967) noted that the sensory organ on the leg of the mite from cats differed morphologically from that present on the mite from dogs; and Smiley (1970) described </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> from cats as a new species using as types specimens recovered from a cat in Ithaca, New York. Human involvement with this mite was first reported by Lomholt in 1918.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Bronswijk and Kreek (1976) provided a synopsis of the worldwide distribution of cheyletiellosis in the rabbit, dog and the cat. Reports of feline infestation have originated from every continent. Recent reports of feline infestation have come from the United States (Keh </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1987), Italy (Faravelli and Genchi, 1984, Faravelli and Traldi, 1985, Dal Tio </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990), Turkey (Dinçer and Karaer, 1985), and Yugoslavia (Wikerhauser and Pinter, 1987).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Mite of the genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are surface-dwelling (non-burrowing), residing in the keratin layer of the skin and in the haircoat of the definitive host. These mites thrive on keratin debris and tissue fluids. Cats typically exhibit scaling on the head, neck and dorsum, lesions easily confused with those of flea-allergy dermatitis and miliary dermatitis (Smith, 1988). Kwochka (1987) reports that these mites have also been observed to crawl in and out of the nostrils of cats. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cheyletiellosis has been referred to as "walking dandruff" because the mites often resemble large, mobile flakes of dandruff. Cheyletiellid mites are unique among mites that parasitize domestic cats, possessing distinct key morphologic features. These are large [500 by 265 µm (Foley, 1991)] mites, visible to the naked eye. Utilizing the compound microscope, one can discern their most characteristic key morphologic feature, their enormous hook-like accessory mouthparts (palpi) (Fig. 5-20). These palpi assist the mite in attaching to the host as it feeds on tissue fluids (Schmeitzel, 1988). Kwochka (1987) reports that these mites also feed on skin surface debris. Members of the genus are also known for their characteristic body shape, a shape that has been reported as being like that of a "shield" (Kwochka, 1987) or that of "bell pepper" or a "western horse's saddle" when viewed from above.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Three species of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> have been suspected of infesting cats: </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (most commonly), Cheyletiella </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>yasguri</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (common on dogs), and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (common on rabbits) (Grant, 1989). One of the characteristic features used to differentiate the various species in the genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is the shape of the sense organ on the first pair of legs. This organ is reported to be conical in </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, heart-shaped in </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>yasguri</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, and globose in </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Species identification, however, is often difficult due to the individual variation in the shape of this organ and to distortion during fixation and mounting for light microscopy (Schmeitzel, 1988). The male organ of sperm transfer, the aedeagus or penis, extends from between the thrid and fourth pair of legs to the posterior of the body of the amle mite and is a straight structure. The adeagus of Cheyletiella parasitovorax is highly curved and resembles the blade of a scythe. Scanning electron microscopy can be of considerable hel in the identification of species (Marchiondo and Foxx, 1978).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are often the means by which a diagnosis of cheyletiellosis is made, eggs being attached to the hair shaft at the pole (Grant, 1989). Eggs are 235 to 245µ long by 115 to 135µ wide (smaller than louse nits) and supported by cocoon-like structures bound to the hair shaft by strands of fibers (Ewing, 1967). Two or three eggs may be bound together on one hair shaft (Grant, 1989).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">The life cycle is spent entirely on the cat. These are non-burrowing mites, residing in the keratin layer of the epidermis. They are never associated with hair follicles. There are five developmental stages in the life cycle of this surface dwelling mite: egg, larva, nymph I, nymph II and adult (Kwochka, 1987). The adult mite attaches eggs to hair (Foley, 1991). The larvae which emerge from the eggs have three pairs of legs while each subsequent nymphal stage and the adult stages possess four pairs. Should the motile stages of this mite leave the definitive host, they usually die within 48 hours, however female mites have been known to survive for as long as 10 days off the host under refrigerated conditions (Schmeitzel, 1988). The prepatent period for </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species has been reported to range from 21 (Kwochka, 1987, Scheidt, 1987) to 35 days (Scott and Horn, 1987, Schmeitzel, 1988, Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990, Foley, 1991).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The mites are very mobile and, as a result, are very contagious by direct contact. "Walking dandruff" can spread easily through a cattery (Foley, 1991). Mites of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species have been found on fleas, flies and lice, hypothesizing that these larger ectoparasites may play a significant role in the animal to animal spread of cheyletiellosis (Kwochka, 1987, Scott and Horn, 1987).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The mites feed relatively superficially on the skin of their feline host (Fig. 5-21). The most characteristic clinical sign of an infestation with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species is the moving white flakes along the dorsal midline and head of the cat (Foley, 1991). Cheyletiellosis in cats has been described as a more localized dorsal crusting along the back with minimal or no pruritus. Cats will occasionally exhibit a diffuse miliary dermatitis that is characterized by reddish-yellow crusted lesions. Scaling may be present (Kwochka, 1987).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats are often asymptomatic carriers. This feature may be due to the meticulous grooming habits of the feline that may reduce the level of infestation (Schmeitzel, 1987; Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990). Frequently the first sign of cheyletiellosis is the development on the owner of an erythematous, papular, pruritic dermatitis. These lesions typically affect areas of close contact with the cat, particularly on the arms or trunk (Grant, 1989). Infested cats may manifest variable degrees of dermatitis, or be asymptomatic carriers.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>DIAGNOSIS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Magnifying loupes and selective removal of questionable flakes or hairs is perhaps the quickest method of diagnosing cheyletiellosis (Foley, 1991). Multiple, repeated skin scrapings may be required as the mites are especially difficult to demonstrate (Scheidt, 1987; Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. 1990).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The "flea comb and potassium hydroxide (KOH) technique" have proven to be a reliable diagnostic technique. In this procedure, a flea comb is used to collect epidermal debris from a 10 cm by 10 cm area over the lumbosacral area. Material is placed in 15 ml centrifuge tube with 1 ml 10% KOH and heated in a water bath until hair and remains are dissolved (approximately 30 minutes). Saturated sugar solution is added to form a meniscus, a coverslip is applied and the tube centrifuged at 1,500 rotations per minute for 10 minutes. The coverslip is then removed, placed on a glass slide, and examined microscopically under low power for eggs and the varied developmental stages of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species (Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Combing dandruff-like debris onto black paper often facilitates visualization of these highly mobile mites. Using clear cellophane tape to entrap mites collected from the haircoat often simplifies localization and viewing under the compound microscope (Merchant, 1990). Epidermal debris may be collected using a small vacuum cleaner and the debris subjected to examination (Schmeitzel, 1988). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Some fastidious cats may demonstrate mites and/or eggs on fecal flotation (Scheidt, 1987, Foley, 1991). Eggs observed in fecal flotation are large (230 by 100µ) and embryonated. They are three to four times as large as hookworm eggs. The egg is characteristic in that high-powered microscopical examination of the pole of the egg in which the anterior of the mite is developing will reveal two small arrowheads or harpoons protruding from the surface of the eggshell.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Skin biopsy reveals a perivascular dermatitis that is spongiotic and hyperplastic. The perivascular dermal infiltrate contains neutrophils, mononuclear cells and a few to many neutrophils. Sections of mites may be observed (Schmeitzel, 1988).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species are very sensitive to most insecticides. In warmer ecosystems where conventional, year-round flea control is practiced on animals, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> spp. mites have been inadvertently eradicated. However, since these mites can live in the environment for up to 10 days, complete eradication in enzootic areas may be difficult, demanding the services of a professional exterminator (Scheidt, 1987). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Antiseborrheic shampoos are helpful in removing heavy scales and crusts prior to using an acaricide on the cat (Kwochka, 1987). Cheyletiellosis is usually treated by applications of topical acaricides in dip, powder or shampoo forms. Treatment must be repeated four to eight times at weekly intervals (Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990). Pyrethrins, carbaryl, rotenone powder and lime sulfur dip are safe for use on cats (Foley, 1990). Due to the high degree of contagiousness with cheyletiellid mites, all of the animals in the household or cattery must be treated (Schmeitzel, 1988)</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>.</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The environment must be cleaned and treated with a residual acaricide to prevent reinfestation by any mites that might survive off the host. The services of a professional exterminator may be indicated (Scheidt, 1987). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Ivermectin has demonstrated good efficacy against </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species in clinical trials at a dosage of 300 µg/kg BW once by subcutaneous injection. This dosage should be repeated in five weeks (Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990). The owner must be made aware of the fact that ivermectin is not currently licensed for use in cats and a release agreement or owner's consent form should be signed prior to its administration (Jackson, 1977). The product should not be given to kittens (O'Dair and Shaw, 1991). Ivermectin may be especially effective in controlling infestations of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species in households with many cats, or used by owners who are physically disabled or used when conventional therapies fail (Paradis </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>et al</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1990). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Sporadic outbreaks of cheyletiellosis are common. Severe infestations can occur in litters, catteries, breeding farms, or pet shops (Merchant, 1990). Cheyletiellosis demonstrates no perceptible age, breed, or sex predilection (Scott and Horn, 1987). It has been suggested that the incidence and severity of clinical signs in the feline are greater in long-haired cats (Scheidt, 1987). In a survey of feline skin disorders seen in a university practice, Scott and Paradis (1990) noted that Himalayan cats accounted for 50% of the cases of cheyletiellosis. These mites are transmitted by both direct and indirect contact. It has been hypothesized that fleas, flies and lice may play a transport role in the spread of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species from animal to animal (Scott and Horn, 1987). Fomites (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">e</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">g</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">., grooming tools) have also been implicated in this transmission (Kwochka, 1987). With regard to age incidence, puppies and kittens appear to be most susceptible (Foley, 1991). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> This mite is extremely contagious and can affect rabbits, dogs and humans (Grant, 1989), however, it is highly likely that the species on the cat prefers a feline host even though these mites are not host specific (Prescott, 1984, Foley, 1991). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> As mentioned previously, human infestation with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species was first reported in 1918 (Lomholt, 1918). Humans, especially cattery personnel, are highly susceptible to infestation by </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species (Foley, 1991). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Human involvement has been reported to occur in 20 to 80 per cent of the cases in cats and dogs. Human cheyletiellosis lesions may begins as single or grouped erythematous macules. These rapidly evolve into papules. The lesions frequently become vesicular or pustular and in time develop a central necrotic area. Pruritus is intense. Parts of the body that may be affected include the arms, legs and torso. The face is rarely affected. Other lesions may include bullae, urticaria, erythema multiforme, and generalized pruritus without dermatitis (Scott and Horn, 1987). Skin scrapings from humans with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species are rarely positive. Diagnosis is often based on demonstration of mites or eggs, clinical history, clinical signs, and response to elimination of the mites. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> cannot complete its life cycle on humans. The induced dermatitis spontaneously regresses within three weeks following elimination of the mites (Scott and Horn, 1987).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Since the mites are easily destroyed by most common insecticides, the owner often "cures" the pet when they treat the pet with flea control products. All in-contact animals must be treated (Kwochka, 1987). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Because the female mite can survive up to 10 days off of the host (Schmeitzel, 1988), the premises must be thoroughly cleaned and sprayed with a residual insecticide (acaricide) such as microencapsulated pyrethrins and microencapsulated chlorpyrifos. A professional exterminator should be consulted to ensure complete application. Foggers may be used to ensure that the furniture where cats may jump and sleep is properly treated (Kwochka, 1987).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bronswijk JEMH, Kreek EJ. 1976. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Acari: Cheyletiellidae) of dog, cat and domesticated rabbit, a review. J Med Ent 13:315-327. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dal Tio R, Taraglio S, Tomidei M, Vercelli A. 1990. Dermatite da </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Descrizione di otto casi e revisione della letteratura. G Ital Dermatol Venerol 125:19-24. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dinçer S and Karaer Z. 1985. The first report on </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Smiley, 1970 (Acari: Cheyletiellidae) on a cat in Turkey. A U Vet Fac Derg 32:250-257. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ewing SA, Mosier JE, Foxx TS. 1967. Occurrence of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> spp. on dogs with skin lesions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 151:64-67.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Faravelli G and Genchi C. 1984. Dermatitis, due to </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Megnin, 1878 (Acarina, Cheyletidae) in man contracted from cat. G Malat Infet Parassit 36:831-833. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Faravelli G, Traldi G. 1985. La cheyletiellosi del gatto. Bollettina AIVPA. 24:225-228. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Foley RH. 1991. Parasitic mites of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed Prac Vet 13:783-801.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Grant DI. 1989. Parasitic diseases in cats. J Sm Anim Prac 30:250-254.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hirst S. 1917. On the occurrence of a pseudoparasitic mite (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, Mégnin) on the domestic cat. Ann Nat Hist Series 8 20:132-133.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Jackson RF. The activity of levamisole against the various stages of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dirofilaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>immitis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the dog. Proc Heartworm Symp, '77. 111-116.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Keh B, Lane RS, Shachter SP. 1987. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, an ectoparasite of cats, as cause of cryptic arthropod infestations affecting humans. West J Med 146:192-194. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kwochka KW. 1987. Mites and related disease. Vet Cl N Am 17:1263-1284. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lomholt S. 1918. To tilfaelde af dyrefnat hos memmesket (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheiletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">). Hospitaltidende. 61:1098-1099.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Marchiondo AA, Foxx TS. 1978. Scanning electron microscopy of the solenidion on genu I of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>yasguri</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>C</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. 64:925-927.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Mégnin JP. 1878. Mémorie sur les cheylétides parasites. J Anat Physiol, Paris 14:416-441. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Merchant SR. 1990. Zoonotic diseases with cutaneous manifestations - Part I. Comp Cont Ed Prac Vet 12:371-378.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">O'Dair HA, Shaw SE. 1991. Mite treatment of cats. Vet Rec 129:272.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Paradis M, Scott D, Villeneuve A. 1990. Efficacy of ivermectin against </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infestation in cats. J Am An Hosp Assoc 26:125-128.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Prescott CW. 1984. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Parasitic</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Diseases</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">of</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">the</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Cat</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">in</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Australia</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Post-graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science. Sydney. Pp. 69-71.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Reed CM. 1961. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>parasitivorax</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> [sic] infestation of pups. J Am Vet Med Assoc 138:306-307. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Scheidt VJ. 1987. Common feline ectoparasites part 2: </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Notoedres</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">,</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Demodex</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> spp. and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Otodectes</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cynotis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Feline Prac 17(3):13-23. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Schmeitzel LP. 1988. Cheyletiellosis and scabies. Vet Cl N Am 18:1069-1076. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Scott DW, Horn RT, Jr. 1987. Zoonotic dermatoses of dogs and cats. Vet Cl N Am 17:117-144.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Scott DW, Paradis M. 1990. A survey of canine and feline skin disorders seen in a university practice: Small Animal Clinic, University of Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec (1987-1988). Can Vet J 31:830-835.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Smith EK. 1988. How to detect common skin mites through skin scrapings. Vet Med 83:165-170.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wikerhauser T, Pinter L. 1987. Parasitic mite </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>blakei</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in a cat. First case report in Yugoslavia. Vet Arhiv 57:63-70. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-20. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Note the large palpal claws</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 5-21. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cheyletiella</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Histological section through a Cheyletiella blakei feeding on cat skin; the large palpal claw is evident in the section.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p>
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