Pearsonema feliscati

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Pearsonema feliscati
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Pearsonema feliscati</b></i></span><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Diesing, 1851) Freitas and Mendonça (1960)</b></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>(Fig. 4-60)</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Named for Dr. Pearson and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis-cat</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> for the feline host.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Moravec (1982) accepted the species </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> as being distinct from </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. After a long discussion of the history of the two species and their associated taxonomy, Butterworth and Beverly-Burton (1980), felt that the species in North American domestic cats should be considered as </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>travassoi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Freitas &amp; Lent, 1936) Ehrlich, 1947. Butterworth and Beverley-Burton described the only reliable means of distinguishing the two species as patterns on the surfaces of the respective egg shells, appearing as large depressions and ridges on </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and appearing striated on </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>travassoi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, and by the terminal caudal alae of the males, triangular in </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and rounded in </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>travassoi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Thus, until such time as these worms are more carefully compared and the eggs in the urine of cats more carefully studied and illustrated, it will be difficult to determine whether these are indeed the same species and whether or not their geographical ranges overlap.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> In 1819 Rudolphi was the first to report the presence of nematode worms in the urinary bladder and renal pelvis in dogs, cats, and foxes. He named the parasite </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. In 1851, Diesing identified a species of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the bladder of cats from Egypt and other locales and named it </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Wilson-Hanson and Prescott, 1982a). Lewis (1927) reported this capillarid from the urinary bladder of cats in Wales. Chen (1934) recorded it from cats in Canton, China. Enzie (1951) felt that </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was markedly different from the </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearonsme</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> usually encountered in feline urine and questions whether Pearsonema plica actually occurs in the cat. In 1953, Chitwood and Enzie published a report on </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the urinary bladder of a cat, adding further credence to the fact that the two species are distinct.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> has been observed in cats from localities throughout the world. Subsequent to its original documentation in Egyptian cats by Diesing, Lewis (1927) reported this capillarid from the urinary bladder of cats in Wales, and Finnerup (1986) reported it in a cat from Denmark. Chen (1934) recorded it from cats in Canton, China. Waddell (1967, 1968a) has reported infection rates in 34% and 31% of adult cats in Brisbane, Australia. A 12-month, Australian survey of 400 cats of varying ages revealed that 18.3% of cats aged 2 years and older were infected with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Younger cats demonstrated a lower infection rate. No cat under 2 years of age was infected (Wilson-Hanson and Prescott, 1982b). In North America, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is either uncommon or overlooked (Lautenslager, 1976). Nevertheless, the occurrence of the feline bladder worm has been documented by veterinarians in the United States (Harris, 1981; Laketa, personal communication).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are found within the urinary bladder of the cat. One source states that these worms move freely within the urine in the bladder and tend not to attach to the bladder mucosa. (Wilson-Hanson and Prescott, 1982a). Another source states that the tiny adult worms are embedded in the bladder epithelium. In some cases, the worms have been found in the ureters and the renal pelvis (Campbell, 1991). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Male </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are 13 to 30 mm in length while the females are from 28 to 32 mm in length. The spicule sheath of the male, like that of species of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Aonchotheca</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, is not spined. The labia of the female's vulva are slightly protruding; they are located some distance from the termination of the esophagus. Both sexes possess a terminal anus that is surrounded by three slight lobes (Enzie, 1951). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The eggs of this parasite are passed in the urine. The eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Peasonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> have been illustrated by Enzie (1951), Waddell (1967) and Burgu &amp; Do?anay (1986). The eggs with bipolar plugs tend to have a pitted surface, but the surface does not, appear to have pits as large as those illustrated for </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> by Enzie (1951) and Butterworth &amp; Beverley-Burton (1980). As shown by Enzie (1951) the eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are markedly different than those of Pearson</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>e</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">ma </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. When passed in the urine, the eggs typically contain one or two cells, and they measure 51 to 65 by 24 to 32 μm (Enzie, 1951) (Fig. 4-60). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is thought to be similar to that of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> as described by Enigk (1950) After passage in the urine, the eggs embryonate and after ingestion by earthworms, the larvae develop to the infective stage within the coelomic cavity. In the case of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the earthworm is considered an obligate intermediate host. Following ingestion of infected earthworms by the final host, the larvae are found in the wall of the small intestine for the first 8 to 10 days after infection and then supposedly make their way via the circulatory system to the bladder. The prepatent period in experimentally infected foxes was 58 to 63 days. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats are not known to eat earthworms, and paratenic hosts (transport hosts), e.g., birds, have been suggested as the means by which cats become infected (Prescott, 1984). Some believe that the life cycle is direct, not involving an intermediate host.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is generally regarded as producing little pathology (Waddell, 1967, 1968a). However, if the ureters become plugged with worms, cats may display the clinical signs of post-renal obstruction (Campbell, 1991). In many infected cats, the serosal surface of the bladder is discolored a brownish-pink. This discoloration was observed in bladders containing 4 or more nematodes. The mucous membranes were not visibly inflamed; however in histopathologic section, there were areas of dilated blood vessels, extravasated blood and lifting transitional epithelium with some inflammatory cells. Within the incised bladders, all worms moved freely within the urine; none appeared to be attached to the bladder mucosa. The maximum number of adult worms recovered from a single urinary bladder was 25. Large numbers of eggs were found in all bladders containing 5 or more adults. Protein concentration of the urine increased as the adult population of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> increased. There was no relationship between the presence of adult capillarids in the bladder and cystitis (Wilson-Hanson and Prescott, 1982a). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Urinary capillariasis has been treated with oral methyridine (200 mg/kg, once). Transitory side effects were noted. Appetite was normal within 12 hours following treatment (Waddell, 1968b, Georgi, 1975).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Harris (1981) noted the disappearance of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> eggs from the urine of a cat following treatment with levamisole (45 mg, SC, once a week for 2 injections). Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg. SC) has been reported to be successful in treating urinary capillariasis in a dog (Kirkpatrick and Nelson, 1987). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Older cats may serve as carriers. The exact role of wild animals in the epizootiology of urinary capillariasis is not known.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">As stated above it is not clear whether this parasite has a direct life cycle or one utilizing an intermediate host. Thus, it is difficult to determine to what extent environemental contamination with eggs shed in the urine would be in a cattery situation.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> There have been no documented cases of the transmission of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> from cats to man. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Methods of control include keeping animals away from soil surfaces and discouraging contact with areas frequented by wild animals (Campbell, 1991). </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LITERATURE CITATIONS</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Burgu A, Do?anay A. 1986. [Some difficulties in the identification of responsible species of urinary capillariose in cats.] [In Turkish]. A U Vet Fak Derg 33:38-51.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Butterworth EW, Beverley-Burton M. 1980. The taxonomy of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>spp</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Nematoda: Trichuridea) in carnivorous mammals from Ontario, Canada. Sys Parasitol 1:211-236.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Campbell BG. 1991. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Trichuris</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and other trichinelloid nematodes of dogs and cats in the United States. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 13:769-779, 801.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Chen HT. 1934. Helminths of cats in Fukien and Kwangtung provinces with a list of those recorded from China. Lingnan Sci J 16:201-273.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Chitwood MB and Enzie FD. 1953. The domestic cat a new host for </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in North America. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 20:27-28.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ehrlich I. 1947. [A revision of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species (Nematoda) from the urinary bladder of the domestic cat..} Glasnik Hrvatskoga prirodoslovnoga društva. Zagreb 1:79-85.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Enigk K. 1950. Die Biologie von </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>plica</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Trichuroidea. Nematodes). Z Tropenmed Parasitol 1:560-571.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Enzie FD. 1951. Do whipworms occur in domestic cats in North America? J Am Vet Med Assoc 119:210-213. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Finnerup E. 1986. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> - urinblæreorm hos kat. Dansk Vett Tidsskr 69:60-61.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Freitas JFT, Lent H. 1936. Estudo sobre os Capillariinae parasitos de mammiferos. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 31:85-160.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Georgi JR. 1975. Feline lungworm treatment. Feline Prac 5:16,20. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Harris LT. 1981. Feline bladderworm. VM/SAC 76:844.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kirkpatrick CE and Nelson GR. 1987. Ivermectin treatment of urinary capillariasis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:701-702. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lautenslager JP. 1976. Internal helminths of cats. Vet Clin N Am 6:353-365. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lewis EA. 1927. A study of the helminths of dogs and cats of Aberyswyth, Wales. J Helminthol 5:171-182.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Moravec F. 1982. Proposal of a new systematic arrangement of nematodes of the family Capillariidae. Folia Parasitologica 29 (2):119-131.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Prescott CW. 1984. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Parasitic Diseases of the Cat in Australia</span></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Post-graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science. Sydney. 112 pg</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Rudolphi KA. 1819. Entozoorum synopsis cui accedunt mantissa duplex et indices locupletissimi. Berlin:813 pp.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Waddell AH. 1967. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the bladder of cats in Australia. Aust Vet J 43:297.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Waddell AH. 1968a. Further observations on </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the cat. Aust Vet J 44:33-34. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Waddell AH. 1968b. Anthelmintic treatment for </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the cat. Aust Vet J 44:</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wilson-Hanson S and Prescott CW. 1982a. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Capillaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the bladder of the domestic cat. Ausl Vet J 59:190-191. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wilson-Hanson S and Prescott CW. 1982b. A survey for parasites in cats. Aust Vet J 59:192. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <h4 class="western">FIGURES</h4> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 4-60. </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pearsonema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>feliscati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Two views of the egg of this worm that are found in the urine. The view on the left shows the large punctate pits that appear to be within the eggshell, the view on the right shows the bleb-like striations on the surface of the shell.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p>
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