Ancylostoma ceylanicum

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Ancylostoma ceylanicum
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: medium"><i><b>Ancylostoma ceylanicum</b></i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><b> (Looss, 1911)</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>ETYMOLOGY: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylo</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> = curved and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>stoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> = mouth; </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> for the location from where the host containing these parasites was originally obtained.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Agchylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>gilsoni</i></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>HISTORY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, like </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>tubaeforme</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, was originally described as a separate species parasitic in the cat and then considered for a period as a synonym of a canine parasite, I WANT TO CHANGE THIS  in this case </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Looss (1911) described </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> based on specimens recovered from a civet cat in Ceylon. A couple of years later, three human prisoners in India were found to have hookworms that were identified as </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> by Lane (1913). However, others felt that </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> should be considered identical to </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Lane, 1922; Leiper, 1913). It was in 1951 that the redescription of Biocca established the criteria upon which this species can be separated from </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Rep et al. (1968) and Rep (1972) performed single sex crossover experiments between males and females of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in dogs and found that fertilized eggs were produced only when both sets of worms represented the same species.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> During the first half of the twentieth century, when </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> was considered a synonym of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, distinctions were not drawn between the two in different surveys. However, after 1951, most reports have dealt with the two species separately. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> is a parasite capable of developing to the adult stage in humans and hamsters, while </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> remains restricted to feline and canine hosts. Thus, earlier surveys of humans where infections were identified as being caused by </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> probably represent infections with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Beaver , 1956). The distribution of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> seems to extend south from India (Chowdhury and Schad, 1972; Ray et al., 1972) down the eastern coast of Africa to Madagascar and South Africa (Baker et al., 1989; Yoshida, 1971; Yoshida et al., 1973). The range also extends east from India into Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand (Amin-Babjee, 1978; Rohde, 1962; Setasuban et al., 1976; Soeripto et al., 1978; Yoshida, 1971; Yoshida et al., 1973). </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> has also been reported from some pacific islands, including Taiwan and Okinawa (Yokogawa and Hsieh, 1961), Philippines (Arambulo et al., 1970), Sri Lanka (Dissanaike, 1961), British Solomon Islands (Haydon and Bearup, 1963), Fiji (Yoshida, 1971a), and Japan (Yoshida and Okamoto, 1972).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> Adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> are found within the small intestine of the cat with the majority being found within the jejunum (Baker et al., 1989). After the oral incoulation of larvae, the worms remain within the intestinal tract; if a dog is infected by skin penetration, the worms migrate through the lungs before entering the intestinal tract. It is not known if there are any arrested stages in the tissues of cats as there would be with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in the dog or to a smaller extent with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>tubaeforme</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in the cat..</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> The adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> are 6 to 10 mm long and appear to be slightly stouter than the adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Members of the genus </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> can be distinguished from </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> by determining whether or not there are ventral teeth in the buccal capsule. Specimens of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylstoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> have large teeth within the buccal capsule while specimens of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> are recognized by the presence of cutting plates. Like </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, the adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> possess only two teeth on the ventral aspect of the buccal cavity with the lateral tooth being large and the median tooth quite small. The adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>tubaeforme</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> will have three teeth on each side of the buccal capsule. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> can be differentiated from </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> by careful examination of the teeth within the buccal cavity. The medial teeth are larger in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> than they are in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Another means of separating these two species is by careful examination of the copulatory bursa of the male. The lateral lobes of the bursa are relatively shorter in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> than they are in Ancylo</span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>s</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">toma </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and the branching of the externo-dorsal rays occurs more posteriad in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> than it does in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>brasiliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> has transverse striations in the cuticle that occur about 4 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m to 5 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m apart while the similar striae in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> are about 8 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m to 9</span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m apart.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"> The eggs of the different </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> species found in the cat are apparently indistinguishable from each other. The eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> have been measured to be 60 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m by 2 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m (Arambulo, et al., 1970). The eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> are larger than those of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> being 70 to 90 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m long by 40 to 50 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m wide. The two eggs representative of these different genera are easy to distinguish in mixed infections (Ehrenford, 1953).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"> Yoshida (1971b) showed that the infective-stage larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> which measured 712 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m in length were significantly longer (712 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m) than the larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> which measure 662 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">m in length. Also, Yoshida demonstrated that the distance from the tip of the tail of the infective-stage larva to the end of the sheath was greater in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> than it was in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. The larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> were similar in length to the larvae of Ancyl</span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>o</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">stoma </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>duodenenale</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, the human species of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Kumar and Pritchard (1992) showed that lectins could be used to distinguish between the larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>duodenale</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> The life cycle has been examined by Yoshida (1971 a&amp;b) and Yoshida et al. (1974). Work was presented following both oral infection of puppies and afer cutaneous infection. In the case of oral infection, the third-stage larvae molted in the intestinal wall two to three days after infection. The fourth-stage larvae entered the lumen and immature adult hookworms were recovered beginning the sixth day after infection. In these puppies the prepatent period was 14 days. When puppies were infected by allowing larvae to penetrate the skin, the larvae underwent a lung migration, and molted to the fourth-stage in the trachea and stomach. Following skin penetration, many larvae are associated with the hair-follicle system and most of the larvae were found in the skin 6 hours after larvaal application (Vetter and Leegwater-Linden., 1977). Fourth-stage larvae were recovered three days after infection, and adults were recoved beginning seven days after the puppies were infected. The prepatent period was the same as in oral infection. The number of worms recovered following oral infection was 90%, but only 15% of the worms that infected via skin penetration were recovered. Yoshida (1968) reported the prepatent period in cats to be 14 to 17 days. Puppies excreted eggs in their feces for 36 weeks after infection, which is when this study was terminated (Carrol and Grove, 1984).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"> An examination of dogs that were challenged with additional infective-stage larvae after their previous infection had been cleared by anthelmintic medication (pyrantel pamoate and bunamidine hydrochloride) indicated that there is some resistance to secondary infection (Carroll and Grove, 1985). When the dogs were reinfected a month after the clearing of the primary infection, the adult worm burdens were reduced 77% compared to control dogs infected at the same time. Thus, for at least a month after the clearance of the primary infection, there appears to be some resistance to additional infection. In a second set of experiments, dogs were given a superimposed infection four weeks after the primary infection was induced (Carroll and Grove, 1986). Thus, dogs received 500 larvae and no challenge, 500 larvae and a challenge of 5000 larvae, or only the 5000 challenge larvae. In this experiment, the number of eggs produced by the dogs receiving 500 larvae remained the same throughout the trial, while the number of eggs produced by the group receiving only 5000 larvae were much higher. The number of worms recovered from the superinfectd group (the group receiving 500 and then an additional 5000 larvae) was reduced 78% below that of the dogs receiving only the 500 challenge larvae. The dogs receiving 5000 larvae developed anemia while the other dogs did not.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"> Mice can serve as paratenic hosts, but it would seem that the percentage of larvae persisting in the mice is quite small. Fukutome (1975) found only 0.1% of the original inoculum present in the muscles of the infected mice. Ray and Bhopale (1972) succeeded in infecting hamsters with the adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum.</i></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> As with other hookworms, the major presentation of an infected animal is regenerative anemia. Areekul et al. (1975) examined the amount of blood loss in experimentally infected dogs using </span><sup><span style="font-size: medium">51</span></sup><span style="font-size: medium">Cr labelled red cells. They found that blood was first detected in the feces 10 to 13 days after cutaneous and 8 to 16 days after oral infection. The mean blood loss was found to be around 0.035 ml per worm per day. When dogs were given 12,150 larvae, they developed bloody diarrhea and iron-deficient anemia (Carroll and Grove, 1984). When dogs were given 2000 infective-stage larvae and monitored over a 36 week period, they developed normocytic anemia and eosinophilia. Dogs with severe microcytic anemia show greater autohemolysis of the blood cells when in the presence of glucose (Carroll et al., 1984). There are no appreciable clinical signs in either experimentally or naturally infected cats.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"> An examination of the feeding sites of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in dogs reveals that the heads are deeply buried in the mucosa of the wall of the small intestine (Carroll et al., 1985). Atrophy and villus ulceration surrounding the attachment sites. Large numbers of erythrocytes are found surrounding sites where worms have detached. Around the heads of the worms there is an infiltation of neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells (Carroll et al., 1984). Erythrocytes were found extravascularly within the lamina propria and the mucosa within the buccal capsules of the worms was in varying stage of lysis. The mucosa around the head of the worm was ulcerated and surrounding enterocytes were small and displayed a loss of microvilli.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> There appear to be no reports of treatment of infected cats. Infections in dogs can be cleared using pyrantel pamoate and bunamidine hydrochloride (Carroll and Grove, 1985). Work in experimentally infected hamsters has indicated that the worms appear sensitive to mebendazole, but relatively refractory to thiabendazole (Misra et al., 1981); however thiabendazole can be efficacious in hamsters when used at 200 mg/kg body weight (Kamath et al., 1985). Oxfendazole (20 mg/kg body weight ) has also proven highly efficacious in the hamster (Bhopale et al., 1984). Ivermectin at 100 </span><span style="font-family: 'WP MathA'"><span style="font-size: medium"></span></span><span style="font-size: medium">g/kg body weight was 100% efficacious in experimentally infected hamsters., and pyrantel pamoate was 100% efficacious when given at 100 mg/kg. Children infected with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> have been successfully treated with mebendazole (Nontasut et al., 1987).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> There is very little information available on the development of the larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> from the egg to the infective stage larva. Yoshida et al. (1974) found that larvae were more likely to develop to the adult stage after oral inoculation than after skin penetration.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium">Dogs are routinely infected with this parasite. Thus, if dogs and cats are sharing the same pens or yards, there is a good chance that both hosts will be infected.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium"> Humans</span><span style="font-size: medium">can serve as hosts to </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. The larvae are capable of penetrating the skin and cause papular eruptions at the sites of larval penetration (Widjers and Smit, 1966). The prepatent period in humans is 18 to 26 days (Bearup, 1967; Yoshida, et al., 1972). Thus, in areas where this hookworm is found, it is of extra importance that cats be kept free from infection. It is also important that the staff of animal hospitals be made aware of the cross transmission capabilities of this parasite.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> has the broadest host range of any of the hookworms infecting the cat. The worms can survive in dogs and humans, as well as in the feline host. Thus, it is important that the control of this parasite include routine examinations and treatments of cats if necessary. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Amin-Babjee. 1978. Parasites of the domestic cat in Selangor, Malaysia. Kajian Veterinar 10:107-114.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Arambulo PV, Jueco NL, Sarmiento RV, Cada AB. The occurrence of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Looss, 1911) in a native dog in the Philippines. Philipp J Vet Med 9:85-90.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Areekul S, Saenghirun C, Ukoskit K. 1975. Studies on the pathogenicity of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">: 1. Blood loss in experimental dogs. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 6:235-240.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Baker MK, Lange L, Verster A, Plaat S. 1989. A survey of helminths in domestic cats in the Pretoria area of Transvalal, Republic of South Africa. Part 1. The prevalence and comparison of burdens of helminths in adult and juvenile cats. J S Afr Vet Assoc 60:139-142.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Bearup AJ. 1967. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Correspondence). Trop Geogr Med 19:161-162.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Beaver PC. 1956. The record of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> as an intestinal parasite of man in North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:737-789.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Behnke JM, Rose R, Garside P. 1993. Sensitivity to ivermectin and pyrantel of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Necator</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>americanus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Int J Parasitol 23: 945-952. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Bhopale GM, KumarA, Nayar PRG. 1984. Development of host resistance to </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> after the elimnation of primary infection with oxfendazole. Hindustan Antibiotics Bull 26:140-141.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Biocca E. 1951. On </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (de Faria, 1910) and its morphological differentiation from </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>A. ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Looss, 1911). J Helminthol 25:1-10.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Carroll SM, Grove DI. 1984. Parasitological, hematologic, and immunologic responses in acute and chronic infections of dogs with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">: a model of human hookworm infection. J Inf Dis 150:284-294.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Carroll SM, Grove DI. 1985. Resistance of dogs to reinvection with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> following anthelmintic therapy. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 79:519-523.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Carroll SM, Grove DI. Response of dogs to challenge with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> during the tenure of a primary hookworm infection . Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 80:406-411.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Carroll SM, Robertson TA, Papadimitriou JM, Grove DI. 1984. Transmission electron microscopical studies of the site of attachment of Ancylostoma ceylanicum to the small bowel mucosa of the dog. J Helminthol 58:313-320.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Carroll SM, Robertson TA, Papadimitriou JM, Grove DI. 1985. Scanning electron microscopy of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and its site of attachment to the small intestinal mucosa of the dog. Ztsch Parasitenk 71:79-85.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Chowdhury AB, Schad GA. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">: a parasite of man in Calcutta and environs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:300-301.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Dissanaike AS. 1961. On some helmints of dogs in colombo and their bearing on human infections, with a description of a new trematode </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Heterophysopsis yehi </i></span><span style="font-size: medium">sp. Nov. (Heterophyidae) Ceylon J Med Sci 10:1-12. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Ehrenford FA. 1953. Differentiation of the ova of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in dogs. Am J Vet Res 14:578-580.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Fukutome S. 1975. The migratory behaviour and development of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in the mouse. Jap J Parasitol 24:49-54.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Haydon GAM, Bearup AJ. 1963. Correspondence: </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>A. ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 57:76.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Kamath VR, Bhopale MK, Bhide MB. 1985. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Looss, 1911) in golden hamsters (</span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Mesocricetus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>auratus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">): immune response after application of anthelmintics. Helminthologia 22:203-210.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Lane C. 1913. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, a new human parasite. Ind Med Gazette 48:217-218.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Lane C. 1922. </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 16:347-352.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Leiper RT. 1913. The apparent identity of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Agchylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Looss, 1911) and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Agchylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Faria, 1910). J Trop Med Hyg 16:334-335.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Looss A. 1911. The anatomy and life history of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>duodenale</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> Dub. II. The development in the free state. Rec Egypt Min Ed 4:163-613.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Misra A, Viusen PKS, Katiya JC. 1981. Comparative efficacy of standard antihookworm drugs against various test nematodes. J Helminthol 55:273-278.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Nontasut P, Singhasivanon V, Maipanich W, Yamput S, Visiassuk K. 1987. Comparative study of different doses of mebendazole in hookworm infection. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 18:211-214.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Ray DK, Bhopale KK. 1972. Complete development of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Looss, 1911) in golden hamsters, </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Mesocricetus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>auratus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Experientia 28:359-361.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Ray DK, Bhopale KK, Shrivastava VB. 1972. Incidence of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> infection in dogs and it zoonotic potential. Ind Vet J 49:661-664.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Rep BH. 1972. Unfertilized hookworm eggs. Trop Geogr Med 24:363-369.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Rep BH, Vetter JC, Eijsker M. 1968. Cross-breeding experiemnts in </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> de Faria, 1910 and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>A. ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> Looss, 1911. Trop Geogr Med 20:367-378.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Rhode K. 1962. Helminthen aus Katzen und Hunden in Malaya; Bemerkungen zu ihrer epdemiologischen Bedeutung für den Menschen. Ztsch Parasitenk 22:237-244..</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Setasuban P, Vajrasthira S, Muennoo C. 1976. Prevalence and zoonotic potential of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> in cats in Thailand. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 7:534-539.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Soeripto N, Loehoeri S, Soenarno, Baedhowi C, Soetarti, Daryono. 1978. Studies on the prevalence of hookworms in the dog’s intestine and the pathlogy of the intestinal wall. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 9:237-243.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Vetter JCM, Leegwater-Linden ME. 1977. Skin penetration of infective hookworm larvae. III. Comparative studies on the path of migration of the hookworms </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">, and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Ztsch Parasitenk 53:155-158.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Wijers DJB, Smit AM. 1966. Early symptoms after infection of man with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Trop Geogr Med 18:48-52.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yokogawa M, Hsieh HC. 1961. A critical review of human infections of Ancylostoma braziliense in Taiwan, Ryukyu (Okinawa) and Japan. Jap J Parasit 10:329-335.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y. 1968. Pathobiologic studies on </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> infection. 8th Int Cong Trop Med Malaria 170-171.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y. 1971a. Comparative studies on </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>brazilienze</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. I. The adult stage. J Parasitol 57:983-989.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y. 1971b. Comparative studies on </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. II. The infective larval stage. J Parasitol 57:990-992.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y, Kondo K, Kurimoto H, Fukutome S, Shirasaka S. 1974. Comparative studies on </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. III. Life history in the definitive host. J Parasitol 60:636-641.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y, Okamoto K. 1972. On the hookworms in stray dogs in Kagoshima Prefecture, southern part of Japan, with special reference to </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Jap J Parasitol 21:328-332.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y, Okamota K, Chiu JK. 1972. Experimental infection of man with </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium">. Chin J Microbiol 4:157-167.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida Y, Okamoto K, Matsuo K, Kwo EH, Retnasabapathy A. 1973. The occurrence of </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>braziliense</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (De Faria, 1910) and </span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ceylanicum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium"> (Looss, 1911) in Malaysia. SE Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 4:498-503.</span></p>
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