Uncinaria stenocephala

Revision for “Uncinaria stenocephala” created on June 18, 2014 @ 11:38:37

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Uncinaria stenocephala
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><b>Uncinaria stenocephala</b></i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><b> Railliet, 1884</b></span></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>(Figures 4-11 through 4-12)</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncin</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = hooked + aria referring to the body and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>steno</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = narrow + </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = head</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dochmoides</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>polaris </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Looss, 1911, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Strongylus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>trigonocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Gurlt, 1831, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dochmius</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>trigonocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Ercolani, 1859, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ankylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>trigonocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Linstow, 1885</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was recognized and described as a species of canine hookworm by Railliet in 1884. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is considered to be a parasite that is commonly found in climates that are more temperate or cooler than those where </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> species are typically found. It is, therefore, confined mainly to the temperate and subarctic climates of the northern and southern hemispheres.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Reports of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in naturally infected cats are rare. Burrows (1968) reported finding </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in only 1 of 2,735 cats examined in New Jersey (6% of dogs were infected). </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The adults of this parasite are found in the small intestine of the feline host. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are 3 mm to 12 mm in length. They can be distinguished from the other hookworms found in the cat by the presence of cutting plates within the buccal capsule, as opposed to the teeth that are present in species of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">(Fig 4-11). The eggs of this worm can also be differentiated form those of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> by their larger sites. The eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> are approximately 70 to 90 um long by 40 to 50 um wide, and are especially easy to differentiate form the eggs of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> when present in mixed infections (Ehrenford, 1953) (Fig. 4-12).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats are relatively refractory to infection with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Rohde, 1959, Hurley, 1990). The experimental infection of six cats with larvae cultured from dog feces, produced patent infections in only three of the cats. In these cats athe number of eggs produced were very few, and they were present in the feces only for a very short period of time. In another study in Istanbul, cats were readily infected with larvae cultured from dog feces (Merdivenci, 1966a). </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The course of infetion with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> has been described in experimentally infected dogs (Gibbs, 1958; Gibbs, 1961; Mihatsch, 1984). When larvae are administered to dogs orally, the larvae undergo a limited somatic migration where they enter the crypts of the gastric glands in the pyloric region of the stomach and the glands of the duodenal mucosa for the first two days after infection. The larvae then reenter the intestinal tract, and as the worms develop, they move in a caudal direction within the intestine. At maturity in the dog, the worms are found in the third quater of the small intestine. The prepatent period can range from 13 to 21 days. Application of larvae to the skin results in lower infection rates. After larvae are applied to the skin, the larvae migrate to the lungs before reentering the gastrointestinal tract through the trachea and esophagus. The prepatent period following percutaneous infection is 15 to 17 days.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Transplacental and transmammary transmission apparently does not occur with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Mihatsch, 1984). The infection of two bitches, each with 20,000 larvae at the time of conception failed to induce infection in the puppies produced by the pregnancies. The infection of four bitches with 20,000 larvae at the time of whelping also failed to produce infection in the nursing pups. The necropsies of these bitches 28 days fafter infection revealed adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the intestines, but no larvae were found in the organs of the body.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> It has been reported that adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> live in the dog for four months (Kalkofen, 1987). A source dog used for experimental infeections at Cornell University was infected for approximately one year. Other investigators have reported that patent infections will persist for about 6 months (Dow et al., 1961). The number of eggs produce by a single female per day has been calculated to by 3,000 to 5,000 eggs per female per day (Rep and Bos, 1979) and 16,000 to 19,000 per female per day (Merdivenci, 1966b).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stneocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> have been shown to persist within the musculature of orally or percutaneously infected mice (Feilke, 1985). Again, as with the dog, more larvae were recovered following oral infection than following percutaneous infection. It was also shown that very low numbers of larvae could be transmitted from the mothers to the mouse pups if the mothers were percutaneously infected on the day of parturititon. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Because of the rarity of infections in cats, the description of clinical sings and studies on the pathogenic effects of infection have all been described in dogs. </span></span></p> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">DWIGHT, NOT SURE WE SHOULD PUT ALL THIS STUFF ABOUT DOGS IN HERE – IT IS PROBABLY NOT DIRECTLY EXTRAPOLATABLE TO CATS? I THINK WE OUGHT TO GET RID OF IT ALL.</span></span> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">In dogs, it would appear the </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> is probably the least pathogenic of the hookworm infections. Blood loss caused by </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> adults within the intestine has been calculated to be 0.3 ul per worm per day (Miller, 1971). This is only7 about 1% to 2% of the amount of blood lost due to the presence of a single Ancylostoma caninum in a dog. In beagle puppoies, the oral inoculation of 1,000 larvae caused no signs of disease (Merdivenci, 1966). The oral inoculation of infective larvae has, however, been reported to induce severe diarrhea and a 10% reduction in plasma protein levels (Miller, 1971). Infections of greyhounds or beagles with 87 to 1,850 adults caused protein-losing enteropathy and suboptimum growth (Walker and Jacobs, 1985). The oral inoculation of adult beagle bitches at the time of conception or whelping with 20,000 larvae caused only slight diarrhea that was on occasion accompanied with bloody mucous and a slight peripheral blood eosinophilia two weeks postinfection. Examination of the tissues of animals within a few days after infection have indicated that there are minimal lesions associated with the larvae that are found in the glands of the stomach and duodenum the first couple days after infection and that the appearance of the fourth-stage larvae in the ileum is marked by the appearance of petechial mucosal hemorrhages (Gibbs, 1958). There is marked inflammation around larvae that penetrate the skin, and the larvae within the lungs are found in focal areas of inflammation (Gibbs, 1958).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> appears more refractory to treatment with certain compounds than the canine hookworm, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylsotoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Treatment of dogs with ivermectin at a dose of 6 µg/kg was 27% to 51% and 57% to 90% effective against the adults of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, respectively (Egerton et al., 1985). Similarly, milbemycin oxime at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight was found to be 100% efficacious in the case of adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostomna</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, but without effect on populations of adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Bowman et al., 1991).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Attempts have been made to prevent infections of dogs with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephla</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> by vaccination with larvae (Dow et al., 1959 and 1961). Dogs that had received infections with normal larvae were found to be refractive to challenge infection when they were challenged 200 days after having being given the primary infection. Dogs receiving larvae irradiated with 40 Krads of gamma irradiation developed patent infections after being inoculated with the irradiated larvae, but with infections produceing much lower egg counts than dogs inoculated with normal larvae. When these dogs that had been vaccianted with irradiated larvae were challenged with normal larvae, there was a marked reduction in the number of adults that developed in these animals compared to unvaccinated controls.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> For </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, a parasite of cooler climates, cooler temperatures preoved the optimum environment for larval development. The ideal temperature for larval development is 68 F (20 C) (Gibbs and Gibbs, 1958). The maintenance of a fecal culutre containing eggs of both </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> at 59 F (15 C) will only produce the larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> after eight days of incubation (Hill and Roberson, 1985). The eggs and larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> can also survive tempereatures of 32 F (0 C) for days to a week, while those of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylsotoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> die within a few days (Balasingam, 1964).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> On the grass exercise paddocks at two large greyhound kennels in England, most of the infective-stage larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> were found on the herbage of the paddock in late fall, with substantial numbers vbeing found on the herbage throughout the winter, with a few being present in early spring (Jacobs, 1978). Also,a it has been observed that dogs infected with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> that have been kept in substandard housing conditions have developed cutaneous pedal lesions similar to those seen in cases of ground itch in people infected with the human hookworms, Ancylsotoma duodenale and Necator americanus (Smith and Elliiot, 1969)</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> If a cat were infected with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, it could serve as a source of infection for other animals in the establishment. However, because of the rarity of this infection in cats, it is more likely that cats will be the recipient of an infection from some other infected animal. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> have not been found in humans. The larvae of this parasite have been shown to cause cutaneous larvae migrans on rare occasions. Fulleborn (1927) showed using his own skin that these larvae were capable of causing cutaneous larva migrans in humans.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats should be protected from sharing space with dogs infected with this parasite.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Balasingam E. 1964. Comparative studies on the effects of temperature on free-living stages of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Placoconus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>lotoris</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dochmoides</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Can J Zool 42:907-918.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bowman DD, Lin DS, Johnson RC, Hepler DI. 1991. Effects of milbemyycin oxime on adult </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in dogs with experimentally induced infections. Am J Vet Res 52:64-67.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Burrows RB. 1968. Internal parasites of dogs and cats from Central New Jersey. Bull NJ Acad Sciu 3:3-8.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dow C, Jarrett WFH, Jennings FW, MacIntyre WIM, Mulligan W. 1959. The production of active immunity against the canine hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala. JAVMA 135:407-411.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dow C, Jarrett WFH, Jennings FW, MacIntyre WIM, Mulligan W. 1961. Studies on immunity to </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infection in the dog - double vaccination with irradiated larvae Am J Vet Res 22:352-354.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Egerton JR, Eary CH, Suhayada. 1985. Dose-titration studies of ivermectin against experimental </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infections. Am J Vet Res 46:1057-1059.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ehrenford FA. 1953. Differentiation of the ova of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in dogs. Am J Vet Res 14:578-580.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Feilke M. 1985. Untersuchungen über die Mögligkeit pränataler und galaktogener Infektiononen mit </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Railliet 1884 (Ancylostomidae) beim Hund (Beagle). Thesis, Institut für Parasitologie der Tierärtzlichen Hochschule Hannover. 65 pp.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fülleborn F. 1927. Durch Hakenwurmlarven des Hundes (</span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">) beim Menschen erzeugte “Creeping Eruption.” Hamburgishce Universität. Abhandl Gebiet Auslandskunde. 26(D,2): 121-133.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gibbs HC. 1958. On the gross and microscopic lesions produced by the adults and larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dochmoides</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Railliet, 1884) in the dog. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 22:382-385.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gibbs HC. 1961. Studies on the life cycle and developmental mrophology of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dochmoides</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Railliet 1884) (Ancylostomidae: Nematodea) Can J Zool 39:325-348.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gibbs HC, Gibbs KE. 1959. The effects of temperture on the development of the free-living stages of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dochmoides</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Railliet, 1884) Ancylostomidae: Nematodea). Can J Zool 37:247-257.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hill RL, Roberson EL. 1985. Temperature-induced separation of larvae of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> from a mixed fecal culture containing </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. J Parasitol 71:390-391.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hurley KJ, Bowman DD, Frongillo MK, {NEED TO FILL IN AUTHORS} 1990. Experimental infections with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in young dogs: treatment with nitroscanate (abst). Proc Am Assoc Vet Parasitol #42.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Jacobs DE. 1978. The epidemiology of hookworm infection of dogs in the UK. Vet Annu 18:220-224.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kalkofen UP. 1997. Hookworms of dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am [Small Anim Pract]17:1341-1354.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Merdivenci A. 1966a. The experimental infection of cats with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> [in Turkish]. Etlik Vet Bakt Enst Dergisi 3:58-66.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Merdivenci A. The daily egg production of a female </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> [in Turkish]. Etlik Vet Bakt Enst Dergisi 3:72-74.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Mihatsch D. 1984. Zum verhalten de Larven von </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Railliet 1884 (Ancylostomaidae) in der Maus. Thesis, Institut für Parasiotologie der Tierärtlichen Hochschule Hannover, 1984, 46 pp.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Miller TA. 1971. Vaccination against the canine hookworm diseases. Adv Parasitol 9:153-183.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Rep BH, Bos R. 1979. Enige epidemiologische apecten van </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infecties in Nederland. Tidsch Diergeneesk 104:747-758.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Rhode K. 1959. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Hakenwürmer des Hundes und der Katze un Betrachtungen über ihre Phylogenie. Ztsch Tropenmed Parasitol 10:402-426.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Smith BL, Eliot DC. Canine pedal dermatitis due to percutaneous </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infection NZ Vet J 17:235-239.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Walker MJ, Jacobs DE. 1985. Pathophysiology of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> infection of dogs. Vet Annu 25:263-271.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Figure 4-11. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria </i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ancylostoma</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. These are the eggs of these two species of hookworms from the same fecal sample. The larger egg is the egg of Uncinaria.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Figure 4-12. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Uncinaria stenocephala</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Anterior end of adult worm showing the cutting plates within the buccal capsule.</span></span></p>
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