Apophallus donicus

Revision for “Apophallus donicus” created on June 18, 2014 @ 12:50:40

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Apophallus donicus
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Apophallus donicus</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Skrjabin and Lindtrop, 1919) Cameron, 1936</b></span></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;">(Figure 2-14)</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apo</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (away from) + </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>phallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (phallus) [the opening of the genital sinus is anterior to the ventral sucker] and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>donicus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> for the Don River.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Rossicotrema donicum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Skrjabin and Lindtrop, 1919; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Tocotrema donicum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Skrjabin and Lindtrop, 1919) Witenberg, 1929; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus donicus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Skrjabin and Lindtrop, 1919) Price, 1931).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This trematode was described by Skrjabin and Lintrop (1919) from specimens collected from cats and dogs in Russia under the name </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Rossicotrema donicum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. There has been considerable debate over the validity of the genus and even the species. However, using the classification of Cameron (1936) (see the history of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus venustus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, below), it would appear that there are two distinct species that conveniently fit within the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> that was originally created by Lühe (1909).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Russia and other parts of Europe. Reported in 1966 from a cat in the Netherlands (Jansen, 1966).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Small intestine.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This worm is less than 1.14 mm in length. The ventral sucker is small, the large, globular testes are located obliquely in the posterior of the body, the vitellaria extend only to the ventral sucker. The eggs are 35 to 40 µm long by 26 to 32 µm in width. Supposedly, this species differed from </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>venustus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is that the vitellaria in </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>donicus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> remain lateral while those in </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>venustus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> are continuous across the body.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle was examined by Ciurea (1933). When cats were fed fresh-water fish containing the metacercarial stage, eggs were present in the uteri of the developed adult worms within two and a half days after infection.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Thought to be asymptomatic although it is expected that the small tremeatodes deeply embedded within the small intestinal mucosa may cause some pathology.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably praziquantel, but not reported.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably praziquantel.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats become infected by eating raw fish. Animals other than the cat that have been shown to serve as hosts of the adult fluke include the dog, fox (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Vulpes lagopus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Mustela sarmatica</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. It has also been found in numerous piscivorous birds: </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Mergus merganser</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Nycticorax nycticorax</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Buteo buteo</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ciconia ciconia</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None. Although other hosts are infected, the major means of infection is through the ingestion of the fish intermediate host which requires that the appropriate snail also be available. Thus, infection of these other hosts will typically only occur in the wild.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None. Humans theoretically could become infected if they ingested an infected piscine host.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Prevention of the ingestion of raw fish.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Cameron TWM. 1936. Studies on the heterophyid trematode, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>venustus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Ransom, 1920) in Canada. Part I. Morphology and taxonomy. Can J Res 14:59-69.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ciurea I. 1933. Les vers parasites de l’homme, des mammifères et des oiseaux provenant des poissons du Danube et de la Mer Noire. Premier Mémoire. Trématodes, famille Heterophyidae Odhner, avec un essai de classification des Trématodes de la superfamille Heterophyoidea Faust. Arch Roum Pathol Exp et de Microbiol 6:5-134.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Jansen J. 1966. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Apophallus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>donicus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Skrjabin et Lindtrop, 1919) bij een kat. Tijdschr Diergeneesk 91:614-615.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lühe M. 1909. Parasitische Plattwürmer. I. Trematoden. Süsswasserfauna Deutschlands Heft. 17. Jena.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Skrjabin KI, Lindtrop GT. 1919. Trematodes intestinales des chiens du Don. don Izvest Donsk Vet Inst 1:30-43.</span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 12:50:40 Anastasia Bowman
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