Revision for “Euryhelmis squamula” created on June 18, 2014 @ 13:00:16

Title
Euryhelmis squamula
Content
<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Euryhelmis squamula</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Rudolphi, 1819) Poche, 1926</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>(Figure 2-18)</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Eury</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = wide and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>helmis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = worm; squamula refers to the scale-like shape of the body. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Eurysoma</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> of Dujardin, 1845; the name was already occupied for other organisms. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This fluke is known from mustelids and foxes in Europe and from mustelids and raccoons in North America. The metacercariae were first found encysted under the skin of a frog (Zeller, 1867)/</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This trematode appears to have a holarctic distribution having been found in Europe and North America.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Small intestine.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Euryhelmis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is characterized by being a very wide trematode. This trematode differs from </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Euryhelmis monorchis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in that it possesses two testes. The trematodes are about 1 mm long by 1 mm in width. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle has elucidated by Anderson and Pratt (1965). The snail used by the parasite in Oregon, US, was </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Bythinella hemphilli</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The cercariae produced were found to have a tail that was one-third longer than the body with a dorsal fin fold. The cercaria penetrated and encysted under the skin of frogs (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ascaphus truei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Rana aurora</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). Metacercariae have also been recovered from the newt (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Triturus cristatus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) and toads. Cats have been experimentally infected by being fed metacercariae (McIntosh, 1936).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Thought to be asymptomatic.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably praziquantel, but not reported.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats would become infected by eating raw frogs, toads, or newts.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None known; however, due to the requirements for two intermediate hosts, it is unlikely that an infected cat would pose a direct threat to other animals.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Humans might be infected if they were to eat uncooked or improperly cooked frog legs.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The prevention of the ingestion of amphibia.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Anderson GA, Pratt I. 1965. Cercaria and first intermediate host of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Euryhelmis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>squamula</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. J Parasitol 51:13-15.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">McIntosh A. 1936. The occurrence of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Euryhelmis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>squamula</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Rud., 1819) in the United States&gt; J Parasitol 22:536.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Zeller E. 1867. Ueber das enkystierte Vorkommen von </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Distomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>squamula</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Rud. in braunen Grasfrosh. Z Wissensch Zool 17:215-220.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 2-18. </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Euryhelmis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>squamula</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from a raccoon in Georgia, US. Note the wide body of this genus of organisms.</span></span></p>
Excerpt


OldNewDate CreatedAuthorActions
June 18, 2014 @ 13:00:16 Anastasia Bowman
June 13, 2014 @ 15:36:22 Anastasia Bowman