Revision for “Isospora felis” created on January 22, 2016 @ 21:54:04

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Isospora felis
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<p align="JUSTIFY">Isospora felis Wenyon, 1923</p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Iso</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> equal; </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>spora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> spore) and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> for cat.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>bigemina</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> of Wasielewski (1904) in part; </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>bigemina</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> of Swellengrebel (1914); </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Dobell and O'Connor, 1921; </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Marotel, 1921; </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lucetina </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Wenyon, 1923) Henry and Leblois, 1926; </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> var. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>servalis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Mackinnon and Dibb, 1938; </span></span></span><span><span><span><i><span face="Times New Roman, serif" size="3" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: medium;">Levine </span></i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Wenyon, 1923) Dubey, 1977; </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cystoisospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Wenyon, 1923) Frenkel, 1977. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The earliest report of coccidia in cats was probably given by Finck in 1854 (Wenyon, 1923; Shah, 1970a) who described stages in the villi of cats as </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>corpuscles</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>gemines</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Wenyon (1923) indicates that these stages were in the lamina propria and not in the enterocytes as were </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The subepithelial location would indicate that these parasites were a </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcocystis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> species. The oocysts of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (large size) and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (medium size) found in cats closely resemble the oocysts of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (large size) and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>ohioensis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">-like (medium size) organisms observed in the feces of dogs (Lindsay and Blagburn, 1991). During the first half of this century dogs and cats were thought to share the same species of coccidia. Nesmeséri (1960) demonstrated that </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from cats was not transmissible to dogs and named the canine parasite </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Shah (1970a) latter confirmed these findings. Several researchers were unable to produce patent infections in dogs with </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocysts isolated from cats (Pellérdy, 1974; Dubey et al., 1970a, Dubey, 1975a) or in cats with </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocysts isolated from dogs (Dubey, 1975a). Based on the results of these studies </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was retained for the species in cats and the species in dogs was named </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>ohioensis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Dubey, 1975a). </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> In the early 1970's, researchers demonstrated that oocysts of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> would excyst in mice and the sporozoites would invade mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites (Frenkel and Dubey, 1972). These encysted stages are infectious when fed to cats and result in oocyst production. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is found worldwide where cats are present.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Feline definitive hosts:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Asexual and sexual multiplication occurs in enterocytes primarily in the posterior small intestine. Asexual stages are also observed in extraintestinal tissues.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Paratenic hosts:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> In these hosts, sporozoites can persist within varioius cells in the lymphatic system of the peritoneal cavity.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION: </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Oocysts measure 38-51 by 27-39 μm (mean: 41.6 by 30.5 μm) (Shah, 1970a) ((Fig. 1-1). The length width ratio is 1.3-1.4 (mean: 1.35). The oocysts of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">are the largest of the coccidial oocysts observed in cats (Table 3). No micropyle is present. Inclusions (hazy bodies) may be observed between the sporont and oocyst wall in freshly excreted oocysts. The hazy bodies degenerate as the oocysts sporulate. No oocyst residuum is present in sporulated oocysts. Sporulated oocysts contain 2 sporocysts (Fig.1-2). Sporocysts measure 20-26 by 17-22 μm (mean, 22.6 by 18.4 μm), contain a sporocyst residuum, and 4 sporozoites but no Steida body. The sporocyst residuum is granular and may contain refractile globules. Sporozoites are 10-15 μm long, lie lengthwise in the sporocyst, contain a single nucleus and a refractile globule. Occasionally a sporulated </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocyst will be observed that is </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Caryospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">-like having a single sporocyst that contains 8 sporozoites (Shah, 1970a).</span></span></span></p> <table border="1" width="712" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="3"><colgroup> <col width="227" /> <col width="228" /> <col width="230" /> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="3" valign="TOP" width="701" height="20"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Table 3. Comparison of measurements of coccidial oocysts from cats.</b></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Species</b></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Length (mean)</b></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Width (mean)</b></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Isospora felis</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>38 to 51</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>27 to 39</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Isospora rivolta</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>18 to 28</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>16 to 23</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Toxoplasma gondii</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>11 to 13</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>11 to 13</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Hammondia hammondi</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>10 to 13</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>10 to 13</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Hammondia pardalis</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>36 to 46 (40.8)</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>25 to 35 (28.5)</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Besnoitia darlingI</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>11 to 13</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>11 to 13</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Besnoitia wallacei</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>16 to 19 (17)</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>10 to 13 (11)</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Cryptosporidium </b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>parvum</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>4 to 5</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"> <span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>4 to 5</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="227" height="21"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>Sarcocystis</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b> spp.</b></span></span></p> </td> <td width="228"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>11 to 14</b></i></span></span></p> </td> <td width="230"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><i><b>7 to 9</b></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> &nbsp; &nbsp; <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Most members of the cat family Felidae are probably suitable definitive hosts. Levine and Ivens (1981) indicated the following were suitable definitive hosts: European wild cat (Felis </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>silvestris</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), ocelot (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pardalis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), serval (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>serval</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), tiger (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Leo</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>tigris</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), lion (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>leo</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), jaguar (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Leo </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>onca</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) and lynx (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynx </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>lynx</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). Oocysts are excreted unsporulated. Oocyst sporulate in 40 hr at 20C, 24 hr at 25C, 12 hr at 30C and 8 hr at 38C (Shah, 1970b). Sporulation does not occur at temperatures above 45C.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Several authors have described portions of the endogenous life cycle of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in cats (Wenyon, 1923; Hitchcock, 1955; Shah, 1971; Ferguson et al., 1980a, 1980b, Daly and Markus, 1981). Sporozoites excyst from </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocysts in the small intestine. Developmental stages are located in enterocytes of the distal portions of the villi in the ileum, and rarely the duodenum and jejunum. The first developmental cycle is probably by endodyogeny and at least three structural types of meronts are produced (Shah, 1971). Mature first-generation meronts of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> were first observed 4 days PI and produced 16-17 merozoites. Mature second-generation meronts were first observed 5 days PI and produced about 10 merozoites. Mature third-generation meronts were first observed 6 days PI, were in the same host cell as the second-generation meronts and produced 36 to 70 merozoites. Sexual stages were first observed 6 days PI. Oocysts were first observed 7 days PI. The prepatent period is 7-11 days and the patent period is 10-11 days.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Mice (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Mus </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>musculus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), Norway rats (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Rattus </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>norvegicus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), golden hamsters (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Mesocricetus </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>auratus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), cows (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Bos </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>taurus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">), and dogs (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Canis </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>familiaris</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) can serve as paratenic hosts (Dubey, 1975; Dubey and Frenkel, 1972; Fayer and Frenkel, 1979; Frenkel and Dubey, 1972; Wolters et al., 1980). The sporozoite present in the tissues of these hosts are infective to cats if they are ingested.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Experimental studies indicate that </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is moderately pathogenic for 6-week-old to 13-week-old kittens given 1 to 1.5 x 10</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">5</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocysts. Soft, mucoid, feces is observed in kittens 8 days after infection but servere disease does not occur. Microscopic lesions in kittens examined early in infection (about 6 days after being given oocysts) are mild and consist of erosion of the superficial epithelial cells. In kittens examined later in the infection (7 to 9 days after infection) congestion, mild neutrophilic infiltration, and hypersecretion of the mucosa are observed (Shah, 1971). Additionally, epithelial hyperplasia was also noted in some kittens. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is more pathogenic for younger kittens. Four-week-old kittens may develop severe disease characterized by signs of enteritis, emaciation and death if given 1 x 10</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">5</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocysts (Andrews, 1926).</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> No signs of disease are seen in paratenic hosts. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT: </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Coccidiosis in cats can be treated with various sulfonamides and quinacrine (Table 4)</span></span></span></p> &nbsp; <table border="1" width="712" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="3"><colgroup> <col width="318" /> <col width="375" /> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" valign="TOP" width="701" height="20"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Table 4. Treatment of intestinal coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis in cats.</b></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Antiprotozoal agent</b></span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>Treatment regimen</b></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" valign="TOP" width="701" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">COCCIDIOSIS</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">sulfadimethoxine (SDM)</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">50 mg/kg for 10 days or 55 mg/kg for 1 day and 27.5 mg/kg until signs disappear</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">SDM plus ormetoprim (OM)</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">55 mg/kg SDM plus 11 mg/kg OM for up to 23 days</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">sulfaguanidine</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">150 to 200 mg/kg for 5 days</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">sulfadiazine (SD) &amp; trimethoprim (TRI)</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">25 to 50 mg/kg SD plus 5 to 10 mg/kg TRI for 6 days for cats over 4 kg </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">12.5 to 25 mg/kg SD plus 2.5 to 5 mg/kg TRI for 6 days for cats over 4 kg </span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">amprolium HCl (AMP)</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">300 to 400 mg/kg for 5 days </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">110 to 220 mg/kg for 7 to 12 days</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"> <span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">20 to 40 mg/kg for 10 days (Blagburn)</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">AMP plus SDM</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">150 mg/kg AMP plus 25 mg/kg SDM for 14 days</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">quinacrine</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">10 mg/kg for 5 days</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">furazolidone</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">8 to 20 mg/kg BWT once or twice daily</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">use ??? this dose if combined with sulfonamides</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" valign="TOP" width="701" height="22"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><b>CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS</b></span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="TOP"> <td width="318" height="21"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">paromomycin</span></span></p> </td> <td width="375"> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">165 mg/kg every 12 hour for 5 days</span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats are very commonly infected with this parasite. It is unclear whether cats are infected more commonly by oocysts or by the ingestion of paratenic hosts. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None known.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> It is possible that humans could serve as paratenic hosts. No recorded cases of human infection exist.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Andrews JM. 1926. Coccidiosis in mammals. Am. J. Hyg. 6:784-798.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Daly TJM, Markus MB. 1981. Enteric multiplication of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> by endodyogeny. Elect Micro Soc South Afr 11:99-100.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dubey JP. 1975a. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>ohioensis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> sp. n. proposed for </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> of the dog. J Parasitol 61:462-465.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dubey JP. 1975b. Experimental </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> infection in mice, cats, and dogs. J Protozool 22:416-417.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dubey JP, Frenkel JK. 1972. Extra-intestinal stages of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I. rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in cats. J. Protozool</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>. </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">19:89-92.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dubey JP, Streitel RH. 1976. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> infections in cats induced by mouse tissue or oocysts. Br. Vet. J. 132:649-651.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dubey JP, Miller NL, Frenkel JK. 1970a. The </span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Toxoplasma </i></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>gondii</i></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> oocyst from cat feces. JExp Med 132:636-662.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Elwasila, M. 1983. A fine-structural comparison of the sporozoites of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Grellia</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Eucoccidium</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>dinophili</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dinophilus </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>gyrociliatus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the mouse. Z. Parasitenkd. 69:583-589.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fayer R, Frenkel JK. 1979. Comparative infectivity for calves of oocysts of feline coccidia: </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Besnoitia</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Hammondia</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cystoisospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Sarcocystis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Toxoplasma. </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">J. Parasitol. 65</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> 756-762. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ferguson DJP, Birch-Anderson A, Hutchinson WM, Siim JC. 1980a. Ultrastructural observations showing enteric multiplication of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cystoisospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> by endodyogeny. Z Parasitenkd 63:289-291.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ferguson DJP, Birch-Anderson A, Hutchinson WM, and Siim JC. 1980b. Ultrastructural observations on microgametogenesis and the structure of the microgamete of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Acta Path Microbiol Scand B 88:151-159.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Frenkel JK, Dubey JP. 1972. Rodents as vectors for the feline coccidia, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora rivolta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. J. Infect. Dis. 125:69-72.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hitchcock DJ. 1955. The life cycle of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the kitten. J Parasitol 41:383-397.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Levine ND, Ivens V. 1981. The Coccidian parasites (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) of Carnivores. Illinois Biological Monographs 51, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois. pp. 248.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lindsay, DS, Blagburn BL. .1991. Coccidial parasites of cats and dogs. Comp. Contin. Ed. Pract. Vet. 13:759-765. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Mehlhorn, H. 1976. Electron microscopy of stages of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> of the cat in the mesenteric lymph node of the mouse. Z. Parasitenk. 51:15-24.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nemeséri L. 1960. Beiträge zur Ätiologie der Coccidiose der Hunde I. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> sp. n. Acta Vet Hung 10:95-99.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Pellérdy L. 1974. Studies on the coccidia of the domestic cat. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> sp. n. Acta Vet </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Hung 24:127-131.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Shah HL. 1970a. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> species of the cat and attempted transmission of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>I</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Wenyon, 1923 from the cat to the dog. J Protozool 17:6003-609.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Shah HL. 1970b. Sporogony of the oocysts of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Wenyon, 1923 from the cat. J Protozool 17:609-614.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Shah HL. 1971. The life cycle of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Wenyon, 1923, a coccidium of the cat. J Protozool 18:3-17.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wenyon CM. 1923. Coccidiosis of cats and dogs and the status of the </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> of Man. Trop Med Parasitol 17: 231-288.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wolters E, Heydorn AO, Laudahn C. 1980. Das Rind als Zwischenwirt von </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cystoisospora </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wschr 93: 207-210.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 1-1</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Oocysts passed in the feces of a naturally infected cat</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>.</b></span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><a href="https://www.aavp.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/fig01-01-e1453519840465.jpg" rel="attachment wp-att-3116"><img src="https://www.aavp.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/fig01-01-228x300.jpg" alt="fig01-01" width="228" height="300" class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-3116" /></a></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 1-2. </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Isospora felis.</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Sporulated oocyst.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><a href="https://www.aavp.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/fig01-02-e1453510460637.jpg" rel="attachment wp-att-3109"><img src="https://www.aavp.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/fig01-02-239x300.jpg" alt="fig01-02" width="239" height="300" class="aligncenter size-medium wp-image-3109" /></a></p>
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