Revision for “Cytauxzoon felis” created on June 18, 2014 @ 12:26:54

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Cytauxzoon felis
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Cytauxzoon felis</b></i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> Kier, 1979</b></span></span></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>(Figures 1-24 and 1-25)</b></span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY: </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Kytos</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (cell) + </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>auxe</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (an increase) + </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>zoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (animal) and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (cat).</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Theileria felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Kier, Wagner and Moorehouse, 1982) Le vine, 1982.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This parasite was first observed in African ungulates and described as a genus distinct from </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Theileria</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> based on the fact that schizogony in </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> occurred in histiocytes while schizogony in </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Theileria</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> occurs in lymphocytes. The parasite was first reported as a parasite of the domestic cat by Wagner in 1976. In 1979, Kier described in her doctoral dissertation the parasite observed in the cat as a new species, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. In 1982, Levine considered </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> synonymous with the genus </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Theileria</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and transferred the name "felis" to this genus. If one accepts the differentiation of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Theileria</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> on the basis that schizogony occurs in histiocytes in the former and lymphocytes in the latter then the name would be </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. It is possible that a species of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Babesia</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> observed in a blood smear from an American bobcat (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynx rufus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) by Wenyon and Hamerton in 1930 was </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, but it was not recognized as such.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Most of the cases of cytauxzoonosis have been reported from the south central and southeastern United States (Motzel and Wagner, 1990). There is a single case of cytauxzoonosis like disease reported from Zimbabwe (Foggin and Roberts, 1982), but it is difficult to ascertain the validity of this claim on the basis of the published material.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Merozoites can be found in erythrocytes; typical parasitemias are 1% to 4% of the red blood cells. Due to the fulminant course of disease in the cat, it is more typical to observe the large schizonts in the walls of the venous system in histopathologic sections. Schizonts may also be observed in bone-marrow aspirates.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION: </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">In the erythrocytes, the merozoites are characterized by their small size. There is typically a single organism per red blood cell, but occasionally two to four organisms may be present. The ultrastructural morphology of the intraerythrocytic form was described by Simpson et al. (1985a).</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Schizonts may be found in veinules of the lung, liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney and brain (Fig. 1-24 &amp; 1-25). The developing schizonts cause an enlargement of the infected cell which may reach 75 m in diameter. The ultrastructure of the schizont has been described (Simpson et al., 1985b). The morphology of schizonts within bone-marrow aspirates are much like those observed in histopathologic section. Again, the cells become very large and contain large numbers of developing organisms.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> has been shown to be antigenically distinct from </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Babesia felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (Uilenberg et al., 1987).</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle has been poorly described, and, basically, descriptions have been developed using parallels with what is known concerning the related genus </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Theileria</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. In the blood of the felid, merozoites circulate within the red blood cells (It is believed that gametogony may not occur until after the red blood cells are in the stomach of the tick.). Within the tick's stomach, it is presumed that the gametocytes undergo development and sexual fusion and ultimately produce sporozoites within the salivary glands of the tick. Once inoculated into the cat, it is not known where the sporozoites first take up residence; however, within a few days, schizonts are found within histiocytes of veins and veinules of various organs including the liver, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, and kidneys. Within 6 to 8 days after inoculation, merozoites can be found in the peripheral blood (Franks et al., 1988). It is not known how long after the appearance of organisms in the blood that infectivity for the tick vector develops.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Usually, by the time the cat is presented, it is severely ill. Signs include anemia and depression that may be accompanied by high fever, dehydration, icterus, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. Packed cell volumes decrease markedly by 6 days after infection, but the anemia is regenerative (Franks et al., 1988). Plasma appears icteric on the last day or two of life. The platelet count is decrease but prothrombin or activated partial thromboplastin times are normal. Although there are no significant changes in total leucocyte counts or absolute neutrophil, monocyte, or basophil counts, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts are decreased markedly within 8 days after infection. Bone-marrow aspirates often contain large mononuclear cells containing schizonts. Almost all cats die within 9 to 15 days after infection. The percentage of red blood cells containing organisms is typically between 1% to 4%; although as many as 25% of red blood cells may be infected.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Inoculation of cats with blood from bobcats containing the merozoite stage will produce persistent parasitemias in red blood cells without inducing cytauxzoonosis (Kier et al., 1982; Blouin et al., 1984). It is believed this is due to the stage being passed being the stage that is restricted to the blood cells and that passage through the tick vector is required to produce the schizogonous stages that can typically be induced by the inoculation of splenic tissue.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Attempts have been made to treat experimentally induced cytauxzoonosis with parvaquone (Clexon</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">R</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) and buparvaquone (Butalex</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">R</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">); both drugs have been shown to be successful in treating theileriosis in cattle. In the regimen employed, the disease still proved fatal. Over a twenty-four hour period, a cat that presented with a 2-day history of lethargy and anorexia became seriously icteric and had dark brown urine (Walker and Cowell, 1995). The cat was treated with a 10 day course of enrofloxacin followed by a five-day course of tetracycline. Organisms were present in the cat after the ten-day course of enrofloxacin, but were not present in blood samples collected 6 and 15 weeks after discharge. It is not known why this cat survived; enrofloxacin is not known to be effective against protozoa. Most success in treatment has been achieved with diminizine and imidocarb. One very ill cat responded rapidly to intravenous fluids, heparin (to treat DIC) enrofloxacin and diminizine aceturate responded well. Diminizine (2mg/kg IM) was repeated weekly for 2 more treatments. Imidocarb dipropionate (5mg/kg IM, twice, 2 weeks apart) has been found to produce a 50% cure rate (Greene, 1998).</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle appears to involve the bobcat, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynx rufus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, as the mammalian reservoir of infection (Glenn et al., 1982) and ticks, including </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dermacentor variabilis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, as vectors (Blouin et al., 1984). The domestic cat apparently enters the life cycle typically when it is bitten by an infected tick. After the cat is bitten by an infected tick, it will usually die of the infection in two weeks.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> has also been found to be present in the blood of the Florida panther (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis concolor coryi</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). From the infected panther, it was transmitted to a domestic cat in the buffy coat of a blood sample, and in the cat, it induced fatal disease (Butt et al., 1991). </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">-like organisms have been observed in the erythrocytes of two cheetahs (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Acinonyx jubatus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) that were born and raised in Oregon, USA, and which had spent two months being trained to hunt in Namibia, Africa, as part of a release program (Zinkl et al., 1981). Inoculation of a cat with blood from one of these cheetahs produced no signs of disease or demonstrable parasitemia.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The fatal disease typically induced in the cat prevents it from being an important reservoir of infection. A wide range of mammalian hosts have been inoculated with </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> without the induction of parasitemias (Kier et al., 1982) with sheep being the only host that appear to develop a persistent, but low, level of circulating organisms.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is not known to infect humans although transmission to primates using stages from ticks have not been tried.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The only form of control is to prevent cats that share the same geographical distribution as the bobcat from being bitten by ticks. The inoculation of a cat with stages grown in tissue culture appeared to induce an immunity (Ferris, 1979), and thus, it may be possible to someday prevent the disease in cats by vaccination.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Blouin EF, Kocan AA, Glenn BL, Kocan KM. 1984. Transmission of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Kier, 1979 from Bobcats, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis rufus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Schreber), to domestic cats by </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dermacentor variabilis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Say). J Wildl Dis 20:241-242.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Butt MT, Bowman DD, Barr MC, Roelke ME. Iatrogenic transmission of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from a Florida panther (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felix concolor coryi</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) to a domestic cat. J WIldl Dis 27:342-347.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ferris DH. 1979. A progress report on the status of a new disease of american cats: cytauxzoonosis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 1:269-276.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Foggin CM, Roberts HM. 1982. A cytauxzoonosis-like disease in a cat in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Vet J 13:28-29.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Franks PT, Harvey JW, Shield RP, Lawman MJP. 1988. Hematological findings in experimental feline cytauxzoonosis. J Am An Hosp Assoc 24:395-401.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Glenn BL, Kocan AA, Blouin EF. Cytauxzoonosis in bobcats. JAVMA 183:1155-1158.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: small;">Kier AB and Greene CE: Cytauxzoonosis. 1998. In. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Greene CE (ed). WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa. Pp 470-473.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kier AB. 1979. The etiology and pathogenesis of feline cytauxzoonosis. PhD Dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kier AB, Wagner JE, Morehouse LG. 1982. Experimental transmission of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from bobcats (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Lynx</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>rufus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) to domestic cats (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>domesticus</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). Am J Vet Res 43:97-101.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kier AB, Wightman SR, Wagner JE. 1982. Interspecies transmission of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Am J vet Res 43:102-105.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Levine ND. 1982. </span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Motzel SL, Wagner JE. 1990. Treatment of experimentally induced cytauxzoonosis in cats with parvaquone and buparvaquone. Vet Parasitol 35:131-138.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Simpson CH, Harvey JW, Carlisle JW. 1985a. Ultrastructure of the intraerythrocytic stage of </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Am J Vet Res 46:1178-1180.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Simpson CH, Harvey JW, Lawman MJP, Murray J, Kocan AA, Carlisle JW. 1985b. Ultrastructure of schizonts in the liver of cats with experimentally induced cytauxzoonosis. Am J Vet Res 46:384-390.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Uilenberg G, Franssen FFJ, Perié NM. 1987. Relationships between </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and African piroplasmids. Vet Parasitol 26:21-28.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wagner, JE. 1976. A fatal cytozoonosis-like disease in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 168:585-588.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Walker DB, Cowell RL. 1995. Survival of a domestic cat with naturally acquired cytauxzoonosis. JAVMA. 206:1363-1365.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Wenyon CM, Hamerton AE. 1930. Piroplasms of the West African civet cat (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Viverra civetta</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) and the Bay lynx (</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis rufa</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) of North America. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 24:7-8.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Zinkl JG, McDonald SE, Kier AB, Cippa SJ, Small PJ. 1981. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">-like organisms in erythrocytes of two cheetahs. JAVMA 179:1261-1262.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 1-24.</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> schizonts in a hematoxylin and eosin stained section of the lung of a cat that died after being inoculated with the bood of a Florida panther. Schizonts can be observed lining the blood vessels in this section of lung.</span></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 1-25.</b></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytauxzoon</i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis </i></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">schizonts in a hematoxylin and eosin stained section of the lung of a cat that died after being inoculated witht the blood of a Florida panther. In this higher power image of another blood vessel in the lung shown in Fig 1-11, the schzionts can be observed to be occluding the lumen of the blood vessel.</span></span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 12:26:54 Anastasia Bowman
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