Revision for “Diplopylidium acanthotetra” created on June 18, 2014 @ 11:17:36

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Diplopylidium acanthotetra
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Diplopylidium</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>acanthotetra</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Parona, 1886) Witenberg, 1932</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplo</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = double and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = openings along with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acantho</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = spined and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>tetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> -four rows of hooks.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Witenberg (1932) reviewed the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and he recognized four species of which only two were considered as parasites of the domestic cat. The synonyms he recognized were: </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>fabulosum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Meggitt, 1927; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>quinquecoronatum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Lopez-Neyra &amp; Munoz-Medina, 1921); </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>trinchesii</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Diamare, 1892); </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>triseriale</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Lühe, 1898).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was first described by Beddard in 1913 who noted the character of the genus, that is in that the openings of the male reproductive system are behind the openings of the female reproductive system. The species </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was first described as a larval stage from a lizard, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Zamensis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>viridiflavus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, in Italy by Parona. Later the adult stage was found by Diamare, 1892 who described it as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>trinchesii</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> but thought it to be the same species as that described as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Later work on the life cycle convinced Witenberg that these were the same species.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> have been reported from the Middle East, North Africa, and southern Europe (Daoud et al., 1988; El-Shabrawy &amp; Imam, 1978; Harralampidis, 1977; Ismail et al., 1983; Roca &amp; Lluch, 1988; Witenberg, 1932). In Egypt, El-Shabrawy &amp; Imam (1978) reported that 51 out of 66 cats were host to cestode parasites, 22.5% harbored a single species, 45.1% had tow species, while 32.4% were reported with three or more types of tapeworms: </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in 16 cats (24.2%); </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in 24 cats (36.4%); </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pasqualei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in 21 cats (31.8%); </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in 30 cats (45.5%); and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Taenia</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>taeniaeformis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in 20 cats (30.3%).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in found in the small intestine of the feline host. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> When compared to </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> species, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in the smallest, only 4-12 cm, of these types of tapeworms found in the cat. It holdfast possesses four suckers and a retractable rostellum armed with thorn-like hooks. The proglottids are shaped like cucumber seeds, possessing two complete sets of genital organs and bilateral genital pores. The genital pores of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> lie anterior to the middle of the proglottid. Each egg capsule contains a single egg. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in characterized by having a short neck and hooks on the scolex that are larger than those of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Very little has been described relative to the biology of this parasite. The cat sheds segments into the environment which contain eggs that are infectious. It is in believed that the first intermediate host is in some form of coprophagous insect, but this has never actually been proven for any member of this genus. The second intermediate hosts are cysticercoids (small solid-bodied tapeworm larvae with an inverted scolex) that are found in reptiles. Cats become infected by the ingestion of the second intermediate host. Parrot and Joyeux (1920) fed cysticercoids to three cats and two became infected. Tapeworms recovered 14 days after the feeding of the cysticercoids contained mature but no gravid proglottids. Tapeworms recovered 22 days after the feeding of the cysticercoids contained gravid proglottids.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> There have been no descriptions of signs in cats infected with this parasite, so it is thought to be asymptomatic.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>DIAGNOSIS: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Little has been described on the actual diagnosis of infection with this tapeworm other than at necropsy. It would seem likely that proglottids are passed in the feces of the cat as occurs with Dipylidium, and it may bee that occasionally free egg capsules containing a single egg may be observed in fecal samples. Each proglottid of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> species possesses two genital pores for fertilization. The egg with its capsule is in best demonstrated by taking a gravid proglottid and teasing it open in a small amount of physiologic saline or tap water to disperse the characteristic egg capsule with its single egg (Georgi, 1987).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Praziquantel (Droncit) administered at 25 mg per animal at 6-week intervals has proven to be effective against </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Blagburn and Todd, 1986), a tapeworm in the same family as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats become infected by ingesting reptiles in dwellings and yards.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> has also been reported from civets.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The authors were unable to ascertain any public health significance potential similar to that which would be observed with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats should not be allowed to roam freely or to scavenge carcasses. Predation may lead to infection with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> if prey animals or carcasses containing cysticercoids.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Beddard FE. 1913. Contributions to the anatomy and systematic arrangement of the Cestoidea. X. On two new species of tapeworm from </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Genetta</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>dongolana</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Proc Zool Soc London. 549-579.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Blagburn BL, Todd KS. 1986. Exotic cestodiasis (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pasqualei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) in a cat. Feline Prac 16(2):8-11.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Daoud IS IN, Al-Tae ARA, Salman YJ. 1988. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in cats from Iraq. J Biol Sci Res 19:363-368.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Diamare V. 1892. Il genere </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Lt Atti Accad Sc Napoli 6:1-31</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">El-Shabrawy MN, Imam EA. 1978. Studies on cestodes of domestic cats in Egypt with particular reference to species belonging to genera </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. J Egypt Vet Med Assoc 38:19-27.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Georgi JR. 1987. Tapeworms. Vet Cl N Am 17:1285-1305. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Haralampidis ST. 1977. Contribution to the study of cat’s parasites and their public health importance. Summary of Thesis. Hell Kteniatike 21:117-119.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hendrix CM and Blagburn BL. 1983. Common gastrointestinal parasites. Vet Cl N Am 13:627-646.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ismail NS, Abdel-Hafez SK, Toor MA. 1983. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in cats from northern Jordan. Pak Vet J 3:129-132., 1983;</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Parrot L, Joyeux C. 1920. Les cysticercoïdes de </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Tarentola</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>mauritanica</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> L. et les Ténias du chat. Bull Soc Path Exot 13:687-695.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Roca V, Lluch, J. 1988. L’helmintofaune des Lacertidae (Reptilia) de la zone thermomediterraneenne de l’est de ‘Espagne. Aspects ecologiques. Vie et Milieu 38:201-205.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Witenberg G. 1932. On the cestode subfamily Dipylidiinae Stiles. Z Parasitenk 4:541-584.</span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 11:17:36 Anastasia Bowman
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