Revision for “Diplopylidium nölleri” created on June 18, 2014 @ 11:17:47

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Diplopylidium nölleri
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Diplopylidium nölleri</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Skrjabin, 1924) Lopez-Neyra, 1927</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplo</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = double and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = openings along with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> for Dr. Nöller.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Witenberg (1932) reviewed the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and he recognized four species of which only two were considered as parasites of the domestic cat. The synonyms Witenberg recognized for </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> were: </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>monoophoroides </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">(Lopez-Neyra, 1927) Witenberg, 1932.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was originally described as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Progynopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> by Skrjabin (1924) from a cat in Turkestan. The genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, first described by Beddard in 1913, had priority over that proposed by Skrjabin. The name proposed for the genus by Skrjabin similarly recognized the same generic condition of this worm’s morphology.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> has been reported from the Middle East and southern Europe (Abdul-Salam &amp; Baker, 1990; Burgu et al, 1985; El-Shabrawy and Imam, 1978; Gadale et al., 1989; Haralampides, 1977; Ismail et al, 1983; Witenberg, 1932). In some cases </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found very commonly being reported by Haralampides (1977) in 71 or 123 cats in Greece and by El-Shabrawy &amp; Imam in 24 of 66 cats in Egypt. In Jordan, Ismail et al. (1983) report that 96 of 123 cats had </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, 32 cats had </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and 24 cats had </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Geckos have been found infected with cysticercoids in Tanzania (Simonsen &amp; Sarda, 1985).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in found in the small intestine of the feline host. Ismail et al. (1983) state that </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in usually found in the very posterior of the small intestine, while </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in found at the end of the first third of the small intestine. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in the posterior two-thirds of the small intestine, overlapping the posterior range of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and extending through the range of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Taenia</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>taeniaeformis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found by these authors mainly in the first third of the small intestine.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> When compared to </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> species, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in the smallest, only 4-12 cm, of these types of tapeworms found in the cat. It holdfast possesses four suckers and a retractable rostellum armed with thorn-like hooks. The proglottids are shaped like cucumber seeds, possessing two complete sets of genital organs and bilateral genital pores. The genital pores of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> lie anterior to the middle of the proglottid. Each egg capsule contains a single egg. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in characterized by having a long neck and hooks on the scolex that are smaller than 0.05 mm and those of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The posterior, gravid segments of fresh specimens of Diplopylidium nölleri have a dark reddish brown coloration that distinguishes this parasite from specimens for </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>acanthotetra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> spp. that may be found within the intestine of a cat.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Very little has been described relative to the biology of this parasite. The cat sheds segments into the environment which contain eggs that are infectious. It is in believed that the first intermediate host is in some form of coprophagous insect, but this has never actually been proven for any member of this genus. The second intermediate hosts are cysticercoids (small solid-bodied tapeworm larvae with an inverted scolex) that are found in reptiles. Cats become infected by the ingestion of the second intermediate host. Popov (1935) described the life cycle of a species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, that he described as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>skrjabini</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Two cats were infected with cysticercoids recovered from lizards, and six weeks later, they were found to harbor adult tapeworms in their intestines. At this time the adults were 4 to 5 cm long, and the posterior segments were darkly colored, being red rather than brown. It is in very likely that these represent the same species as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> There have been no descriptions of signs in cats infected with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, so it is thought to be asymptomatic.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>DIAGNOSIS: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Methods for the diagnosis of infection with this tapeworm other than at necropsy have not been described in any detail. It would seem likely that proglottids are passed in the feces of the cat as occurs with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and it may bee that occasionally free egg capsules containing a single egg may be observed in fecal samples. Each proglottid of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> possesses two genital pores for fertilization. The egg with its capsule is in best demonstrated by taking a gravid proglottid and teasing it open in a small amount of physiologic saline or tap water to disperse the characteristic egg capsule with its single egg (Georgi, 1987).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Praziquantel (Droncit) administered at 25 mg per animal at 6-week intervals has proven to be effective against </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Blagburn and Todd, 1986), a tapeworm in the same family as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats become infected by ingesting reptiles in dwellings and yards. Some surveys have shown that up to 16 of 55 examined geckos have cysticercoids in their body cavity (Simonsen &amp; Sarda, 1985).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> There probably is in no significant hazard from an infected cat because the larvae must pass through a first intermediate host, probably an arthropod. Thus, cats probably pose no significant hazard to other animals. Of course, as the number of pet reptiles increases, and because the first host is in not known, there is in the possibility of increasing the potential of having large numbers of infected arthropods present in areas where both cats and reptiles share the same living quarters. Dogs can be infected with this parasite (Illescas-Gomez et al., 1989).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The authors were unable to ascertain any public health significance potential similar to that which would be observed with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats should not be allowed to roam freely or to scavenge carcasses. Predation may lead to infection with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> if prey animals or carcasses containing cysticercoids (Hendrix and Blagburn, 1983).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Abdul-Salam J, Baker K. 1990. Prevalence of intestinal helminths in stray cats in Kuwait. Pak Vet J 10:17-21.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Blagburn BL, Todd KS. 1986. Exotic cestodiasis (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>pasqualei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) in a cat. Feline Prac 16(2):8-11.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Burgu a, Tinar R, Doganay a, Toparlak M. 1985. Ankara’da sokak kedilerinin ekto-ve endoparazitleri uzerinde bir arastirma. Vet Fak Derfiusi, Ankara Univ 32:288-300.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">El-Shabrawy MN, Imam EA. 1978. Studies on cestodes of domestic cats in Egypt with particular reference to species belonging to genera </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Joyeuxiella</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. J Egypt Vet Med Assoc 38:19-27.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gadale OI, Cape;;o G, Ali AA, Poglaayen G. 1989. Elminti intestinali del gatto. Prime segnalazioni nella Repubblica Democaratica Somala. Boll Sci Fac Zoot Vet Univ Nat Somala 8:13-24.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Georgi JR. 1987. Tapeworms. Vet Cl N Am 17:1285-1305.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ilescas Gomez MP. Rodriguez-Osorio M, Granados-Tejerop D, Fernandez-Valdivia J, Gomez-Morales MA. 1989. Parasitoismo por helmintos en el perro (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Canis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>familiaris</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> L.) en la provincia de Granada. Rev Iber Parasitol 49:3-9. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Haralampidis ST. 1977. Contribution to the study of cat’s parasites and their public health importance. Summary of Thesis. Hell Kteniatike 21:117-119.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hendrix CM and Blagburn BL. 1983. Common gastrointestinal parasites. Vet Cl N Am 13:627-646.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ismail NS, Abdel-Hafez SK, Toor MA. 1983. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in cats from northern Jordan. Pak Vet J 3:129-132.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Popov P. 1935. Sue le dévelopment de </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Diplopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>skrjabini</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> n. sp. Ann Parasitol 13:322-326.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Simondsen P, Sarda PK. 1985. Helminth and arthropod parasites of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Hemidactylus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>mabouia</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from Tanzania. J Herpetol 19:428-430.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Skrjabin KI. 1924. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Progynopylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nölleri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> nov. Gen., nov. Spec., ein neuer Bandwurm der Katze. Berl Tierartzl Wschr 32:420-422.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Witenberg G. 1932. On the cestode subfamily Dipylidiinae Stiles. Z Parasitenk 4:541-584.</span></span></p>
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