Revision for “Dipylidium caninum” created on June 18, 2014 @ 11:19:32

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Dipylidium caninum
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Dipylidium</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>caninum</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Linnaeus, 1758) Leuckart, 1863</b></span></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>Figures 3-10 through 3-14</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Di = two and pylidium = entrances plus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> for the canine host.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Witenburg (1932) stated that “</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in probably the only species in the genus.” He then goes onto list numerous synonyms including among species described as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">: </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canicum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Lopez-Neyra, 1927; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> cani Galli Valerio, 1898; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caracidoi</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Lopez-Neyra, 1927; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Neumann, 1896; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>compactum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Milzner, 1926; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>crassum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Milzner, 1926; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cucumerinum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Block, 1782); </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>diffusum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Milzner, 1926; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>gracile</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Milzner, 1926; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>halli</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Tubangui, 1925; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>longulum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Milzner, 1926; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>porimamillanum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Lopez-Neyra, 1927; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>sexcoronatum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Ratz, 1900; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>walkeri</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Sonhi, 1923. The one other species Witenberg thought might be valid was </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>buencaminoi</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Tubangui, 1925 for very small specimens with very small eggs from a dog in Manilla, Phillippines; Venard (1938) thought there were three species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">: </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>buencaminoi</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>otocyonis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Joyeux, Baer, &amp; Martin, 1936 described from specimens recovered from </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Otocyon</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>megalictis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in Somalia.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> has been known to man since the time of the ancient Babylonians (Venard, 1938). In 1758, Linnaeus, recognized the parasite and named it </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Taenia</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canina</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. In 1863, Leuckart created the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, but it was not until 1893 until it was described by Diamare. Early work on the life cycle was reported by Neveau-Lemaire (1936). This parasite is in one of the most common parasites of domesticated dogs and cats. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in by far the most common tapeworm of cats in North America (Flick, 1973; Hitchcock, 1953; Lillis, 1967) and perhaps throughout the world (Arundel, 1970; Baker et al., 1989; Bearup, 1960; Boreham and Boreham, 1990; Chandler, 1925; Clarkson and Owen, 1959; Collins, 1973;Coman, 1972; Coman, et al., 1981; Cowper, 1978; Dubey, 1960; Engbaek et al., 1984; Esle, et al., 1977; Gadale, et al, 1988-89; Gregory and Munday, 1976; Hutchison, 1957; Kelly and Ng, 1975; Lewis, 1927a &amp; 1927b; McColm and Hutchison, 1980; Mirzayans, 1971; Moore and O'Callaghan, 1985; Niak, 1972; Nichol et al., 1981a &amp; 1981b; Poglayen, et al., 1985; Ryan, 1976; Umeche and Ima, 1988).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in found anchored to the wall of the small intestine by its scolex, its holdfast organelle. In nature, the metacestode or larval stage of the parasite is in found within the body cavity of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, the cat flea, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, the dog flea, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pulex</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>irritans</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, the human flea, or more uncommonly within </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Trichodectes</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, the dog louse (Boreham and Boreham, 1990; Georgi 1987; Pugh, 1987; Zimmermann , 1937).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The scolex of the adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in tiny, measuring less than 0.5 mm in diameter. It possesses four muscular suckers that aid in attachment and locomotion. At the apex of the scolex is in the rostellum, a dome-shaped projection. The rostellum of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in armed with four to seven rows of tiny, backward facing, rose-thorn-like hooks and is in retractable into the scolex (Figs. 3-10 and 3-11) (Witenberg, 1932). This tapeworm may attain a length of from 15 to 70 cm and be 2 to 3 mm wide with a light reddish yellow color. The body is in composed of 60 to 175 elliptical segments or proglottids (Boreham and Boreham, 1990). Each proglottid of this hermaphroditic tapeworm contains two sets of male reproductive organs and two sets of female reproductive organs with each set genital apertures opening medially on the lateral edges of the proglottid (Fig. 3-12). Proglottids of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> have two genital pores for fertilization, but no opening to allow eggs to escape. Because of these bilateral genital pores, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in often referred to as the "double pored tapeworm." Eggs accumulate within each proglottid until the proglottid becomes packed like a ripe seed pod (Georgi, 1987). Gravid proglottids are creamy white, 10 to 12 mm in length and resemble cucumber seeds. Hence, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in also referred to as the "cucumber seed tapeworm" (Griffiths, 1978). Gravid tapeworm proglottids (Fig 3-13) are filled to capacity with egg capsules or egg packets (Fig. 3-14), each of which contain from 5 to 30 hexacanth ova (Georgi, 1987). </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The terminal tapeworm proglottids are often passed singly in the feces (Griffiths, 1978). Since the tapeworm proglottids possess both circular and longitudinal smooth musculature (Chitwood and Lichtenfels, 1973), they have the ability to move about the cat's perianal region, on the feces, on the bedding or across any surface where they may be deposited (Griffiths, 1978). These proglottids will desiccate in the external environment. As they loose moisture, they shrivel up, often resembling uncooked rice grains (Boreham and Boreham, 1990).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Due to its ease of infectivity, the life cycle of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in perhaps recounted by veterinarians more than any other parasite. As mentioned previously, the hermaphroditic adult parasite is in found attached in the small intestine of the feline definitive host. The gravid terminal segments are passed in the feces of the cat. The larval stages of the cat flea (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) savor these segments and will actively descend upon a freshly passed proglottid to eat it (Pugh, 1987). The flea larvae has mandibulate mouthparts which allow it to ingest the eggs of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The adult flea, however, is in not able to ingest these proglottids due to its siphon-like mouthparts which restrict it to a totally liquid diet. Larvae of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Pulex</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>irritans</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, and the dog louse, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Trichodectes</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>canis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, are also capable of serving as intermediate hosts for </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Within the intermediate host, the hexacanth embryo develops into a tailless cysticercoid. This is in the stage that is in infective to the feline definitive host. The ambient temperature determines the rate of development of the larval tapeworm. The flea becomes infected as a larva, however the hexacanth embryo does not develop to an infective cysticercoid until the adult flea has emerged from its pupal case. In response to the host's body temperature, development is in completed to the infective cysticercoid stage (Pugh, 1987). The flea may contain an average of 10 cysticercoids (range 2 to 82). The cat becomes infected by ingesting the flea during the grooming process (Georgi and Georgi, 1990).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Venard (1938) experimentally infected a cat with fleas infected with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. He recovered tapeworms from the cat 23 days later. Hinaidy (1991) also reported the prepatent period to be 2 to 4 weeks. Growth of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> within the definitive host is in dependent upon diet, age of the host, and health.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Adult tapeworms cause little harm or inconvenience to the feline definitive host unless they are present in large numbers. In cats with severe infections, convulsions and epileptiform seizures occasionally occur (Boreham and Boreham, 1990). Heavy infections in young animals can produce non-specific abdominal symptoms including constipation or diarrhea. The animal may exhibit an unthrifty, pot-bellied appearance. Intestinal obstruction may occur, however this is in rare. However, most clients consider disgusting the sight of proglottids of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> crawling about the cat's haircoat, on the client's bedclothes, or on the recently passed feces of the cat.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>DIAGNOSIS: Key morphologic features: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Identification of egg packets and proglottids as those of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in necessary for controlling this ubiquitous tapeworm. The client may irrefutably observe tapeworm segments crawling on or about the cat, yet the laboratory diagnostician may fail to demonstrate the characteristic eggs packets on fecal flotation. Egg packets within proglottids are best demonstrated by taking a gravid proglottid and teasing it open in a small amount of physiologic saline or tap water to disperse the characteristic egg packets. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Inspection with the naked eye or a hand lens is in usually sufficient for the identification of segments of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The characteristic cucumber seed shape coupled with the double pored effect are pathognomonic indicators. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Pet owners often find dehydrated, shriveled objects in the vicinity of their cat's resting places. These desiccated objects bear little resemblance to segments of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> but, if they are rehydrated in water, they will assume their former cucumber seed appearance.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The anthelmintic with the broadest spectrum of cestocidal activity is in praziquantel. A single oral or subcutaneous dose (5 mg/ kg body weight) of this anthelmintic eliminates 100% of both immature and adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from cats. An alternative cestocide is epsiprantel administered in a single oral dose of 5.5 mg/kg of body weight. An important adjunct to the treatment of dipylidiasis in cats is in a vigorous flea control program. Whenever a dose of cestocidal medication is in administered or dispensed, the cat's owner should be informed of the acute potential for reinfection via the flea (or louse) intermediate host.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Adult </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> parasitize the small intestine of many members of the Felidae and Canidae families. In addition to domestic cats and dogs, this cosmopolitan parasite may be found in foxes, dingoes, hyenas, wild cats, jungle cats, Indian palm cats, civet cats and wild dogs (Boreham and Boreham, 1990).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Boreham and Boreham (1990) state that almost nothing is in known of the epizootiology of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">; however, Georgi and Georgi (1992) state that transmission potential is in a function of the density of the flea intermediate host. Hinaidy (1991) examined 9.134 fleas in Austria and found that 2.3 % of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> collected from cats and 1.2% of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> collected from dogs were found to be infected with cysticercoids of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. From Ctenocephalides canis collected from dogs, 3.1% were found to harbor cysticercoids. Fleas harbored anywhere from 1 to 162 cysticercoids with a mean of around 8 per infected flea. Male fleas tended to be infected slightly more often than female fleas, but they tended to harbor fewer cysticercoids.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> a Danish survey revealed a higher prevalence o </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in backyard cats, probably due to the ideal conditions for the survival of the flea intermediate host. a higher prevalence was found in female cats than in male cats. This was attributed to the care of the kittens (Engbaek et al., 1984). In the Republic of South Africa, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in marginally more common (24%) in adult cats and is in the most common helminth in juvenile cats (21%) (Baker et al., 1989).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Uga and Yatomi (1992) reported that a survey of cats in Japan revealed that there were almost no cases where cats were infected with both with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">and</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Experimental infection of cats with larval stages from both parasites revealed that somehow infection with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> prevented the development of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> through some form of competition.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Due to environmental transmission of fleas and the ease of ingestion during the grooming process, once </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in diagnosed in any pet in a household, all cats and dogs within that environment should be treated. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Veterinarians should be aware of the public health significance potential of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. If fleas containing the infective cysticercoid stage are ingested by a human, patent infections with this tapeworm may occur. Children are at an increased risk of infection owing to their close association with the family pet, and therefore, their increased risk of accidentally ingesting a flea. Although human infection with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in not common, neither is in it a rare event. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is in mildly pathogenic, producing nocturnal irritability, anorexia, and weight loss in infected children. Diagnosis is in by finding the characteristic proglottids in the feces or in the perianal area. Most human cases, however, are asymptomatic for the patient, although they can be very traumatic for the parent who might come across segments while changing a diaper or in the child’s under garments or pajama. It must be emphasized that this condition is in a rarity. The adult females of the human nematode parasite, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Enterobius</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>vermicularis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, that migrate out of the anus of infected children may be easily confused with the passed proglottids of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> by the untrained observer (Georgi and Georgi, 1992). </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Rigorous on-animal and environmental flea control programs coupled with an effective cestocidal agent must be implemented to control </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in the feline. It is in also necessary to be certain to develop programs that handle all the canine and feline pets in the household.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Arundel JH. 1970. Control of helminth parasites of dogs and cats. Austral Vet J 46:164-168.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Baker MK, Lange L, Verster a, van der Plaat S. 1989. a survey of helminths in domestic cats in the Pretoria area of Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. Part 1: The prevalence and comparison of burdens of helminths in adult and juvenile cats. J So Afr Vet Assoc 60:139-142. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bearup AJ. 1960. Parasitic infection in cats in Sydney, with special reference to the occurrence of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ollulanus tricuspis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Austral Vet J 36:352-354. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Boreham RE, Boreham PFL. 1990. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">: Life cycle, epizootiology, and control. Comp Cont Ed Prac Vet 12(5):667-676.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Chandler AC. 1925. The helminthic parasites of cats in Calcutta and the relation of cats to human helminthic infections. J Parasitol 20:213-227.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Chitwood M, Lichtenfels JR. 1973. Identification of parasitic metazoa in tissue sections. Exp Parasitol 32:407-519.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Clarkson MJ, Owen LN. 1959. The parasites of domestic animals in the Bahama Islands. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 53: 341-346. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Collins GH. 1973. A limited survey of gastro-intestinal helminths of dogs and cats. N Z Vet J 21: 175-176.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Coman BJ. 1972. A survey of the gastro-intestinal parasites of the feral cat in Victoria. Austral Vet J 48:133-136.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Coman BJ, Jones EH, Driesen MA. 1981. Helminth parasites and arthropods of feral cats. Austral Vet J 57:324-327.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Cowper SG. Helminth parasites of dogs and cats and toxoplasmosis antibodies in cats in Swansea, South Wales. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 72:455-459.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Dubey JP. 1960. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Toxocara</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">and other intestinal parasites of cats. Vet Rec 79:506, 508.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Engbaek K, Madsen H, Larsen SO. 1984. a survey of helminths in stray cats from Copenhagen Denmark with ecological aspects. Z Parasitenkd 70:87-94.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Esle RW, Bagnall BG, Phaff JJG, Potter C. 1977. Endo- and ecto-parasites of dogs and cats: a survey from practices in the East Anglian Region BSAVA. J Small Anim Pract 18: 731-737.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Flick SC. 1973. Endoparasites in cats: Current practice and opinions. Feline Prac XX(4);21-34.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gadale OI, Capelli G, Ali AA, Poglayen G. 1988-89. Cat's intestinal helminths: First reports in Somali Democratic Republic. VIII Boll Sci Del Fac Zootec Vet 12-24.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Georgi JR. 1987. Tapeworms. Vet Cl N Am 17:1285-1305.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Georgi JR and Georgi ME. 1992. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Canine Clinical Parasitology</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Lea &amp; Febiger. Philadelphia. Pp. 138-141. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gregory GG, Munday BL. 1976. Internal parasites of feral cats from the Tasmanian midlands and King Island. Austral Vet J 52:317-320.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Griffiths HJ. 1978. In: a Handbook of Veterinary Parasitology Domestic Animals of North America. University of Minnesota. Minneapolis. P. 119.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hinaidy HK. 1991. Beitrag sur Biologie des </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. 2. Mitteilung. J Vet Med B 38:329-336.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hitchcock DJ. 1953. Incidence of gastro-intestinal parasites in some Michigan kittens. N Am Vet 34:428-429. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hutchison WM. 1957. The incidence and distribution of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Hydatigera</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>taeniaeformis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and other intestinal helminths in Scottish cats. J Parasitol 43:318-321. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kelly JD. Ng BKY. 1975. Helminth parasites of dogs and cats. II. Prevalence in urban environments in Australasia. Austral Vet Pract XXXXXXXXXXX.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lewis EA. 1927a. A study Welsh helminthology. J Helminthol 5:121-132. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lewis EA. 1927b. a study of the helminths of dogs and cats of Aberystwyth, Wales. J Helminthol 5:171-182. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Leuckart R. 1863. Die Parasiten des Menschen und die von ihnen herrührenden Krankheiten. Leipzig, 1879-1886.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Lillis WG. 1967. Helminth survey of dogs and cats in New Jersey. J Parasitol 53:1082-1084. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">McColm AA, Hutchison WM. 1980. The prevalence of intestinal helminths in stray cats in central Scotland. J Helminthol 54:255-257.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Mirzayans a. 1971. Incidence of gastrointestinal helminths of domestic cats in the Teheran area of Iran. J Parasitol 57:1296. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Moore E, O'Callaghan MG. 1985. Helminths of dogs and cats determined by fecal examination in Adelaide, South Australia. Austral Vet J 62:198-=200.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Niak a. 1972. The prevalence of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Toxocara</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>cati</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and other parasites in Liverpool cats. Vet Rec 91:534-536.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nichol S, Ball SJ, Snow KR. 1981a. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in domestic cats from the London area. Vet Rec 109:252-253.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nichol S, Ball SJ, Snow KR. 1981b. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in feral cats in some urban areas of England. Vet Parasitol 9:107-110.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Poglayen G, Traldi G, Capelli G, Genchi C. Fauna parassitaria gastro-intestinale del gatto nelle città di Bologna, Firenze e Milano. Parassitol 27:297-302.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Pugh RE. 1987. Effects on the development of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and on the host reaction to this parasite in the adult flea (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Ctenocephalides felis felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). Parasitol Res 73:171-177. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ryan GE. 1976. Gastro-intestinal parasites of feral cats in New South Wales. Austral Vet J: 52:224-227. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Umeche N and Ima AE. 1988. Intestinal helminthic infections of cats in Calabar, Nigeria. Folia Parasitol 35:165-168. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Venard CE. 1938. Morphology, bionomics, and taxonomy of the cestode </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Ann NY Acad Sci 37:273-328.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Witenberg G. 1932. On the cestode subfamily Dipylidiinae Stiles. Z Parasitenk 4:541-584.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Zimmermann 1937. Life-history studies on cestodes of the genus</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from the dog. Z Parasitenk 9:717-729</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>FIGURES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 3-10.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Rostellum of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> with the rostellum inverted.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 3-11.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Rostellum of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> with the rostellum everted.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 3-12.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Mature segment of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> showing the two sets of genital organs with separate openings on each side of the proglottid.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 3-13</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Gravid segment of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> showing the large number of contained egg capsules.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 3-14.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Egg capsules of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> as they appear in a sugar flotation.</span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 11:19:32 Anastasia Bowman
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