Revision for “Spirometra erinaceieuropaei” created on October 26, 2017 @ 09:09:20

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Spirometra erinaceieuropaei
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: large"><i><b>Spirometra </b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: large"><i><b>erinaceieuropaei </b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: large"><b>(Rudolphi, 1819)</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spiro</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> = spiral and </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>metra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> = uterus (referring to the spiral-shaped uterus as opposed to the rosette-shaped uterus in </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">) and </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> for the European hedgehog (genus=</span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Erinaceus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">) from which the larval stage was originally recovered and named.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> The following list of synonyms is taken from Schmidt (1986) who did not recognize the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">, considering it a synonym of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">: </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>decipiens</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Railliet, 1866; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Creplin, 1825; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>maculatus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Leuckart, 1848; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Cobbald, 1882) Blanchard, 1888; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>liguloides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Diesing, 1859), </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>sulcatus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Molin, 1858; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Dibothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> serratum </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diesing</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">, 1850; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Dibothrium </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Ariola, 1900; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>fausti</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Vialli, 1931; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Dubium </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinacei-europaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Rudolphi, 1819; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ligula </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Cobbold, 1882; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ligula </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>pancerii</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Polonio, 1860; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ligula </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ranarum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Gastaldi, 1854; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Ligula </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>reptans</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Diesing, 1850; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>affine</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Diesing, 1854; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ellipticum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Molin, 1858; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Cobbold, 1882) Stiles and Taylor, 1902; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>philippinensis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Tubangui, 1924; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>proliferum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Ijima, 1905; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>reptans</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Diesing, 1854; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>decipiens</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Faust, Campbell, and Kellogg, 1929; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinacei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Faust, Campbell, and Kellogg, 1929; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>houghtoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Faust, Campbell, and Kellogg, 1929; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>okumurai</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Faust, Campbell, and Kellogg, 1929; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>raillieti</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Ratz, 1913) Wardle, McLeod, and Stewart, 1947; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>ranarum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Meggitt, 1925; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>reptans</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Diesing, 1850) Meggitt, 1924; </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>tangalongi</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (MacCallum, 1921).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> In 1819, Rudolphi described a larval tapeworm recovered from a European hedgehog as the species erinaceieuropaei. Faust et al. (1929) recovered larval stages from a Chinese hedgehog (</span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Erinaceus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>dealbatus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">) and reared the adult stage by feeding this form to dogs. These authors believed this form identical to that described by Rudolphi from the European hedgehog. While this was occurring, Dr. Patrick Manson in 1882 recovered 12 tapeworm larvae, spargana, during an autopsy in Amoy, China, and these worms came to be known as Manson’s sparganum, or </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Sparganum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. In 1917, Yoshida obtained adult worms by feeding sparganids obtained from humans to dogs. Joyeux and Houdemer (1928) described </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (as </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">) using sparganids obtained from different animals in Southeast Asia. Odening (1982) reexamined the biology of the European form. Work of Fukumoto et al. (1992) on the isoenzyme patterns of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> from Japan and Australia, indicated that these two forms were similar.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> has been reported from numerous occasions from the orient (Fujinami et al., 1983; Tang, 1935 [sparganosis in cat], Wu, 1938; Rhode, 1962; Shanta et al., 1980). Schmidt et al. (1975) found </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> in cats from Taiwan and the Philippines; Tongson and San Pablo (1979) also reported </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> from the Philippines. It has been reported from the Americas (Mueller et al., 1975; Torres and Figueroa, 1982). </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> has also been reported in cats from Hawaii (Olsen and Hass, 1976) and Puerto Rico (Acholonu, 1977). Australia can also be considered to be within the range of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Gregory and Munday, 1976; Thompson et al., 1993). Reports from Europe include those of Odening (1982) and Manfredi and Felicita (1993).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>LOCATION IN HOST: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Adult worms are found in the small intestine. Cats can on occasion be infected with the plerocercoid larval stage (see section of Sparganosis).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> The strobila of this tapeworm is about 1 m long and less than 1 cm in width. The bothria is similar to that of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. The uterus of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra spp.</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> appears spiral as the uterine loops from the posterior to the anterior pile up on each other; the uterus of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> appears to have a rosette formation. Each proglottid has separate openings of the cirrus and vaginal pore that are in the anterior portion of each segment, while the uterine pore is in the posterior of each segment. In contrast, the cirrus and vaginal pores of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> are fused into a single pore. Also, the cirrus sac and seminal vesicle are fused together in </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> The proglottids of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> contain a uterus that is not expanded terminally into a U-shaped portion as is the case with </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansonoides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> The egg of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> resembles the egg of a digenetic trematode, that is, it is oval and possesses a distinct operculum at one pole of the shell. The eggs are oval, yellow-brown and have dimensions that average 60 µm by 36 µm. The eggs have an asymmetric appearance and tend to be pointed at one end. On eggs that are ruptured, a distinct operculum is visible. The eggs are unembryonated when passed in the feces. It is possible that cats will go for extended periods with negative fecal samples that will be followed by periods when eggs are present in the feces.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> It is reported that the Asian and African forms of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">, typically prefer the dog as the final host (Mueller, 1974). The life cycle has been completed experimentally through all stages in the laboratory (Lee et al., 1990). The egg that is passed in the feces is not embryonated. After a few days in the water, a ciliated larva with 6 hooklets typical of tapeworms (called a coracidium) hatches and swims about. This larva is ingested by copepods of the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Mesocyclops</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Eucyclops</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">, and within the body cavities of these minute crustaceans, a small larval stage called a procercoid develops. Once the larva is 15 days old, it is infective to tadpoles. Once this stage in the tadpole, which is called a plerocercoid, is 15 days old, it is capable of infecting murine paratenic hosts. After cats are orally infected with plerocercoids, eggs appear in the feces in 15 to 18 days.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Odening (1982) compiled the literature on the prepatent period and life expectancy of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> using experimental infections with plerocercoids obtained from hosts from Poland, Burma, Japan, North America, Thailand, and Russia made observations on these events. He found the prepatent period in cats to be between 10 and 25 days and found that the worms in cats lived between 178 to 763 days, or about 6 months to 2 and one-half years. Odening also reported that the shedding of eggs and proglottids appeared to occur in cycles where the cats would shed eggs for about a month and then would undergo a similar period where no eggs were found in the feces. The necropsy cats in the "negative phase” revealed that only the scolex and anterior body were present during this period, and it was felt that this occurred if even more than one tapeworm from the same initial infection were present, i.e., that somehow the shedding of the "spent” proglottids became synchronized.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Most of the reports of infection with </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> species in domestic cats have been from results from parasitologic surveys or from results of fecal assays. There has been very little reported on the signs associated with infection, so it can be assumed that infection is asymptotic in the cat.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Oral, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration of praziquantel at 30 mg/kg body weight to cats experimentally infected with </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> cleared all animals of their infections (Fukase et al., 1992). Treatment of 22 cats with naturally acquired infections by the intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of 34 mg/kg body weight eliminated the cestodes from the treated animals. Note: this treatment is with dosages of praziquantel that are greater than those required to treat intestinal dipylidiasis and taeniasis in cats.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Dogs and cats serve as major hosts of the adults of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. Cats become infected when they eat infected prey The plerocercoids are present in amphibia, reptiles, and small mammals. Thus, the infection would be expected in cats that hunt. Uga and Yatomi (1992) reported that a survey of cats in Japan revealed that there were almost no cases where cats were infected with both </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> and with </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Dipylidium </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. Experimental infection of cats with larval stages from both parasites revealed that only adults of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinaceieuropaei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> developed in cats given larvae of both types suggesting that somehow infection with this species prevented the development of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Dipylidium </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> through some form of competition.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> The hazard posed by the stage passed in the feces of the cat is minimal because it requires a period of development in water to produce the larval stage infectious to copepods. However, infected cats are shedding eggs into the environment that might infect copepods that would then pose a threat to any animal that might be drinking unfiltered water. Thus, infected cats should be treated even if they show no untoward signs from their infection..</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Humans have been reported to be infected with both the larval stage and the adult stage of this parasite.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Infection with the larval stage of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> is termed sparganosis and for a summary of the human cases of sparganosis the reader is referred to texts on human parasitology (Beaver et al., 1984; Gutierrez, 1990). Humans may become infected in three ways: 1) by the accidental ingestion of the aquatic crustacean </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Cyclops</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> infected with procercoids. These procercoids migrate to the subcutaneous tissues and develop to plerocercoids; 2) by the ingestion of plerocercoids within the second intermediate host. These plerocercoids are found in the connective tissue of the muscles, particularly of the abdomen and hind limbs and under the peritoneum, pericardium and pleura of the second intermediate host. When these plerocercoids are ingested by humans, they migrate to the various tissue sites and reestablish in the human; and 3) by the application of poultices. When infected frog or snake flesh is used as a wound dressing or applied to the eyes, the plerocercoids may migrate to these sites. The plerocercoids migrate subcutaneously producing inflammation, urticaria, edema and eosinophilia. Spargana are often found in the periorbital area, in the subcutaneous tissues and in the muscles. The most probable source of infection is contaminated drinking water (Taylor, 1976).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> There have been five cases where humans have been infected with the adult stage of this parasite (Suzuki et al., 1982).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Prevention would require that cats be dissuaded from hunting which is liable to be an impossibility. Thus, it will be necessary to perform fecal examinations on cats living in areas where this parasite is present. Because of the nature of this parasite to undergo periods when eggs are not present in the feces, it may be necessary to perform more than one fecal examination each year to insure that a cat is free of this parasite.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Acholonu AD. 1977. Some helminths of domestic fissipeds in Ponce, Puerto Rico. J Parasitol 63:757-758.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Beaver PC, RC Jung, EW Cupp. 1984. </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="text-decoration: underline">Clinical Parasitology, 9</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><sup><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="text-decoration: underline">th</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="text-decoration: underline"> edition.</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Lea &amp; Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.; </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Faust EC, Campbell HE, Kellogg CR. 1929. Morphological and biological studies on the species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Diphyllobothrium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> in China. Am J Hyg 9:560-583.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Fujinami F, Tanaka H, Ohshima S. 1983. Prevalence of protozoan and helminth parasites in cats for experimental use obtained from Kanto Area, Japan. Exp Anim 32:133-137. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Fukase T, Suzuki M, Igawa H, Chinone S, Akihama S, Itagaki H. 1992. Anthelmintic effect of an injectable formulation of praziquantel against cestodes in dogs and cats. J Jap Vet Med Assoc 45:408-413.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Fukumoto S, Tsuboi T, Hirai K, Phares CK. 1992. Comparison of isozyme patterns between </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinacei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansonoides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> by isoelectric focusing. J Parasitol 78:735-738.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Gregory GG, Munday BL. 1976. Internal parasites of feral cats from the Tasmanian Midlands and King Island. Aust Vet J 52:317-320.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Gutierrez Y. 1990. </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="text-decoration: underline">Diagnostic Pathology of Parasitic Infections with Clinical Correlations.</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Lea &amp; Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. 532 pages.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Joyeux C, Houdemer E. 1928. Recherches sur la faune helminthologique d l’Indochine (cestodes et trématodes). Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 6:27-58.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Lee SH, We JS, Sohn WM, Hong ST, Chai JY. 1990. Experimental life history of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinacei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. Kor J Parasitol 28:161-173.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Manfredi MT, Felicita A. 1993. Recenti rilievi epidemiologici sui cestodi del cane e del gatto. Prax Vet Milano 14:5-7.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Mueller JF. 1974. The biology of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. J Parasitol 60:3-14. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Mueller JF, Miranda Fróes O, Fernández T. 1975. On the occurrence of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansonoides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> in South America. J Parasitol 61:774-775.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"> <span style="font-size: medium">Odening K. 1982. Zur Strobilaperiodizität von </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae). Angew Parasitol 24:14-27.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Olsen OW, Hass WR. 1976. A new record of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirmetra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">, a zoonotic tapeworm, from naturally infected cats and dogs in Hawaii. Hawaii Med J 35:261-263.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Rhode K. 1962. Helminthen aus Katzen un Junden in Malaya; Bermerkungen zu ihrer epidemiologischen Bedeutung für Menschen. Ztsch Parasitenk 22:237-244.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Rudolphi CA. Entozoorum synopsis cui accedeunt mantiss duplex et indices locupletissimi. 811 pages, Berolini.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Schmidt GD. 1986. </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="text-decoration: underline">Handbook of Tapeworm Identification</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 675 pages.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Schmidt GD, Fuerstein V, Kuntz RE. 1975. Tapeworms of domestic dogs and cats in Taiwan with remarks on </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> spp. BS Chauhan Comm Vol 41-46.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Shanta CS, Wan SP, Kwong KH. 1980. A survey of the endo- and ectoparasites of cats in and around Ipoh, West Malaysia. Malay Vet J 7:17-27.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Suzuki N, Kumazawa H, Hosogi H, nakagawa O. 1982. A case of human infection with the adult of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinacei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Rudolphi, 1819) Faust, Campbell and Kellogg, 1929. Jap J Parasitol 31:23-26. 1982)</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Tang CC. 1935. A survey of helminth fauna of cats in Foochow. Pek Nat Hist Bull 10:223-231.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Thompson RCA, Meloni BP, hopkins RM, Deplazes P, Reynoldson JA. 1993. Observations on the endo- and ectoparasites affecting dogs and cats in aboriginal communities in the north-west of western Australia. Aust Vet J 70:268-270.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Tongson MS, San Pablo FG. (1979) A study on the prevalence of gastrointestinal worms of cats in metropolitan Manila. Philip J Vet Med 18:1-15.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Torres P, Figueroa L. 1982. infeccion por </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>mansoni</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) en el sur de Chile. Bol Chileno Parastiol 37:72-73.)</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Uga S, Yatomi K. 1992. Interspecific competition between </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Spirometra</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>erinacei</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Rudolphi, 1819) and </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Dipylidium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> (Linnaeus, 1758) in cats. Jap J Parasitol 41:414-419.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Wu K. 1938. Helminthic fauna in vertebrates of the Hangchow area. Pek Nat Hist Bull 12:1-8.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium">Yoshida S. 1917. The occurrence of </span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>Bothriocephalus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><i>liguloides</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"> Leuckart, with special reference to its development. J Parasitol 3:171-176.</span></span></p>
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