Revision for “Cyathospirura seurati” created on June 20, 2014 @ 12:58:05

Cyathospirura seurati
<p align="CENTER"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Cyathospirura seurati</b></i></span><span style="font-size: large;"> Gibbs, 1957</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> Cyatho</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = cup shaped + </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>spirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> = speiroieides (spiral) and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>dayuridis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> referring to the dasyurid marsupials from which these worms have been collected.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura dasyuridis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Mawson, 1968.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Gibbs (1957) first described this from a fennec fox in Egypt. Mawson (1968) described a new species, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>dasyuridis,</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> from dasyurid marsupials (Dasyurops maculatus and Dasyurus quoll) of Australia and Tasmania. In 1993, Hasegawa et al. after comparing specimens of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> collected from rodents in Okinawa placed </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>dasyurids</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in synonymy with </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cythospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>seurati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Seurat (1913) described a new species </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Habronema</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chevreuxi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> from a cat, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>ocreata</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, from Algeria that was red in color and found free within the stomach. The worm was transferred to the genus </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cytathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> by Baylis (1934) It has since been reported from Tunisia, centraal Africa, and North America (Pence et al., 1978). Chabuad (1959) confirmed the sparate identity of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chevrauxi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">, but the distinguishing characters were mainly the host and the different geographical locations. In light of the work by Hasegawa et al. (1993), this may need to be reconsidered. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Reported from cats in Australia and Tasmania (Coman 1972, Coman et al., 1981), Gregory and Munday (1976). Has been reported from the fennec fox in Egypt (Gibbs, 1957) and from foxes in Australia (Coman, 1973). It has also been described from Rattus rattus in Southern Europe, North Africa, and Japan (Quenta and Wertheim, 1975, Hasegawa et al., 1993).</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> The worms are found in the stomach of their host. As noted originally by Seurat (1913) and later by Coman et al. (1981). Thus, in cats in Australia, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>seurati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was typically found free in the lumen while </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cylicospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felineus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in tumors in the mucosa. Pence et al. (1978) noticed in bobcats that </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chevrauxi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was typically free in the lumen while the </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyclicospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felineus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> that were present caused tumors in the mucosa. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">These are red worms found free in the lumen of the stomach (although sometimes in the tumors formed by </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cylicospirurua</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>felineus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> if also present). The worms are about 6 to 12 mm long. The worms in this genera differ from those of </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyclicospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Spirocerca</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> in that the buccal cavity ahs one dosal and one ventral lobe and contains 8 teeth. The vulva is located near midbody. The eggs are small, clear, thick-shelled and contain an coiled embryo. The eggs are 33 to 35 μm long and 18 to 20 μm wide.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Gupta and Pande (1981) reported on the experimental infection of dogs with spirurid larvae recovered from wall lizards, </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Hemidactylus</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>flaviviridis</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">. Worms were recovered from the dogs 16 to 24 days after infection. These worms were described as a new species </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chabaudi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> which was considered morphologically similar to </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirurua</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>seurati</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> There have been no descriptions of the pathologic manifestations of this parasite. Pence et al (1978) felt that </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chevreuxi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was minly a lumen dweller. Gupta and Pande (1981) found that in the experimentally infected puppies that </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chabaudi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> was found in the deep in the mucosa and submucosa. </span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> None has been reported.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Very little is know about he intermediate hosts of this group of worms. It would be suspected that the first intermediate host would be an arthropod. It is suspected that paratenic hosts are involved in the life cycle and that cats would become infected by eeither eating lizards or some other such host.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARDS TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">There would be no direct infection of animals housed with infected cats.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">None would be likely.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION: </b></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Cats should be prevented from hunting.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Baylis HA. 1934. On a collection of cestodes and nematodes from small mammals in Taganyika Territory. Ann Mag Nat Hist 10:338-353.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Chabaud AG. 1959. Sur la systematique des nematodes proches de </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Spirocerca</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>lupi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Rud., 1809). Parassitologia 1:129-135.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Coman BJ. 1972. A survey of the gastro-intestinal parasites of the feral cat in Victoria. Aust Vet J 48:133-136.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Coman BJ. 1973. Helminth parasites of the fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Victoria. Aust Vet J 49:378-384.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Coman BJ, Jones EH, Driesen MA. 1981. Helminth parasites and arthropods of feral cats. Aust Vet J 57: 324-327.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gibbs HC. 1957. Helminth parasites of reptiles, birds and mammals in Egypt. III. Cyathospirura seurati sp. nov. from Fennecus zerda. Can J Zool 35:201-205.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gregory GC, Munday BL. 1976. Internal parasites of feral cats from the Tasmanian Midlands and King Island. Aust Vet J 52:317-320.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gupta VP, Opande BP. 1981. </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cyathospirura</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>chabaudi</i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> n. sp. from pups infected with re-encapsulated larvae from a paratenic host. Ind J Anim Sci. 51:526-534.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Hasegawa H, Arai S, Shiraishi S. 1993. Nematodes collected from rodents on Uotsuri Island, Okinawa, Japan. J Helminthol Soc Wash 60:39-47.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Quentin JC, Werthem G. 1975. Helminths d’oiseaux et de Mammifères d’Israël. V. Spirurides nouveauz ou peu connus. Ann Parasitol 50:63-85.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Mawson PM. 1968. Two species of Nematoda (Spirurida: Spiruridae) from Australian dasyurids. Parasitology 58:75-78.</span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ryan GE. 1976. Gastro-intestinal parasites of feral cats in New South Wales. Aust Vet J. 52:224-227.</span></p>

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June 20, 2014 @ 12:58:05 Jessica Retzlaff