Revision for “Paragonimus miyazakii” created on June 18, 2014 @ 12:33:57

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Paragonimus miyazakii
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Paragonimus miyazakii</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> Kamo, Nishida, Hatsushika, and Tomimura, 1961</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Para</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = side-by-side and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>gonimus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = gonads along with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>miyazakii </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">= for Dr. Miyazaki’s lifelong efforts in the study of paragonimiasis.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus miyazakii</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was described based on specimens recovered from a weasel in Japan and initially considered to possibly be </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus kellicotti</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Kamo</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> et al</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. (1961) found a different metacercaria of a </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> type and after growing the flukes to maturity experimentally showed that it was a new species.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Japan. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> In cysts in the lungs.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">are 7 to 12 mm long, 4 to 8 mm wide, and quite thick, i.e., 4 to 6 mm. For differentiation of the Asian species see </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus westermani</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The eggs have a thin brown shell, a distinct operculum, and occasionally a knob on the abopercular end; eggs range from 75 µm in length by 43 µm in width and tend to be larger on the whole than those of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus westermani</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle is similar to that of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus westermani</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The first intermediate host is the snail </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Bithynella nipponica</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The second intermediate host is a fresh-water crab, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Geothelphusa dehaani</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, in which the metacercariae are found in blood vessels around the heart. The metacercariae of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus miyazakii</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> are larger than those of the other asian species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, being about 0.5 mm in diameter. In cats fed 40 to 50 metacercariae, patent infections developed 51 to 52 days after infection (Tomimura</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> et al</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1964).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The presentation of infection in cats appears similar to that of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus westermani</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. In human hosts, outbreaks have tended induce pleural rather than pulmonary manifestations. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably praziquantel.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Infected mammalian hosts other than the cat include dogs, weasels, sables, pigs, raccoon dogs, and badgers. These hosts are becoming infected by the ingestion of infected crabs.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> If mammals ingest the infected crab, there is a possibility that larval flukes will penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate into the abdominal cavity. In permissive hosts, the flukes will go onto develop in the lungs while in some hosts the flukes will persist as in the swine paratenic host. In all these hosts, there is the possibility for associated pathology.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Human outbreaks have occurred with this infection due to the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked crabs. The first known outbreak of infection with this parasite occurred in 1974 and was characterized by a large number of patients who had signs of fluke infection within the pleural cavity without eggs being present in the sputum.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kamo H, Nishida H, Hatsushika R, Tomimura T. 1961. On the occurrence of a new lung fluke, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Paragonimus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>miyazakii</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> n.sp. in Japan. (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae). Yonago Acta Medica 5:43-52.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Tomimura</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> et al</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1964 </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>NEED REFERENCE</b></span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 12:33:57 Anastasia Bowman
June 15, 2014 @ 20:54:09 Anastasia Bowman