Revision for “Platynosomum concinnum” created on June 18, 2014 @ 12:41:32

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Platynosomum concinnum
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Platynosomum concinnum</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Braun, 1901) Purvis, 1933</b></span></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;">(Figures 2-34 through 2-</span></span></p> &nbsp; <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platy</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = flat and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>nosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = ????? along with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = graceful or harmoniously arranged</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dicrocoelium lanceolatum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> var </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>symmetricum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Baylis, 1918; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Concinnum concinnum </i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">(Braun, 1901) Bhalerao, 1936; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Kossack, 1910.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was described by Looss in 1907 for a species recovered from a bird (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Cicaetus gallicus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). A fluke from the civet cat was described by Braun (1901) as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dicrocoelium concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and was transferred to the subgenus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> by Bhalerao (1936). Later, the subgenus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was given generic rank (Yamaguti, 1958). Kossack (1910) described a fluke from a cat, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Felis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>minuta</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, that he named </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Purvis (1931 &amp; 1933) examined specimens of what he considered to be </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> that were recovered from cats in Malaysia, and after making his observations, Purvis believed that </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> was identical with </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum planicipitis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Cameron, 1928). It would appear that if the species "</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">” is the same species as that described by Kossack as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, that the name </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> would be the name with priority because this is the name that was used as part of the original description.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The tropics, including, Malaysia, Hawaii, West Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, including the southeastern United States and the Florida Keys (Bielsa and Greiner, 1985).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Gall bladder and bile ducts; rarely in the small intestine.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> adults are about 5 mm long by 2 mm wide (Figure 2-34). The suckers are about equal in size, with the ventral sucker being about one-fourth of the body length from the anterior end. The vitellaria are located mainly at mid body and the genital opening is at or anterior to the branching point of the intestinal ceca. The testes and ovary are comparatively larger than in species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Eurytrema</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The eggs are operculate and measure 34 to 50 µm by 20 to 35 µm (Figure 2-35). A comparison of diagnostic methods revealed that a formalin-ether sedimentation technique was much more sensitive than either a sugar or zinc-sulfate flotation for the diagnosis of infections with this parasite (Palumbo</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> et al</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1976).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle has been incompletely described (Maldonado, 1945; Eckerlin and Leigh, 1962). Cercariae with very short tails, i.e., microcercous cercariae, develop in sporocysts within the terrestrial snail </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Subulina octona</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The sporocysts leave the snail and are eaten by terrestrial isopods, "pill bugs." The metacercariae in the isopods are not infective to cats, but if ingested by a lizard, frog, or toad, the encysted forms are found in the common bile duct and gall bladder of these animals. Cats become infected through the ingestion of the lizard or amphibian third-intermediate host.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats infected with large numbers of these parasites can present with severe disease due to the blockage of the biliary system (Robinson and Ehrenford, 1962). Clinical signs have been described in 8 infected cats in the Bahamas. The cats did not thrive and had occasional bouts of diarrhea, depression and anorexia. On examination, the cats had severe weight loss, mild jaundice of the mucous membranes, and mild hepatic enlargement. If the condition progressed to complete biliary obstruction, there was severe diarrhea and vomiting with marked jaundice. At necropsy, severe jundice was obvious, and the liver a greenish-yellow. The bile ducts were markedly dilated with thickened walls (Ikede</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i> et al</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">., 1971). In histological sections, the trematodes could be observed within the dilated bile ducts (Figure 2-36).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Experimental infection of cats was induced by feeding of liver from infected toads, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Bufo marinus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Taylor and Perri, 1977). Eggs were detected in the feces of several cats as early as two months after infection, and all cats were shedding eggs in their feces by 12 weeks after infection. No clinical signs were observed in cats given 125 metacercariae. However, in cats given about 1,000 infective stages, clinical signs were noted in number of animals. The signs included lethargy, abdominal distension, inappetence, weight loss, and an enlarged liver. There were increased numbers of circulating eosinophils in all infected cats, and increases in both alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Histologically, there was severe adenomatous hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium with periductal inflammation. The cats continued to shed eggs in their feces for a year-and-a-half after the initial exposure which was when the study terminated.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Praziquantel at a dose of 20 mg per kg has markedly reduced the number of eggs shed by infected cats. Similarly, nitroscanate at 100 mg/kg also markedly reduced the numbers of eggs being shed by infected cats. Although cats often produced negative samples several weeks after treatment, they very often again shedding eggs in their feces a number of weeks after having stopped shedding (Evans and Green, 1978). It has been reported to one author (D.D. Bowman) that treatment of infected cats in Florida, USA, with severe hepatic disease using praziquantel at a dosage of 40 mg per kg resulted in the death of a compromised cat.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats are not the only hosts of this parasite. It has also been reported from opossums (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Didelphis marsupialis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) and from the civet (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Viverra zibetha</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">). Mice have been experimentally infected (Eckerlin and Leigh, 1962).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None known. </span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> There have been no records as to the infection of human beings with this parasite. If a person were to ingest the lizard, they could perhaps develop an infection.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Prevent the ingestion of infected lizards, toads, and frogs.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bhalerao GD. 1936. Studies on the helminths of India. Trematoda I. J Helminthol 14:163-180/</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Bielsa LM, Greiner EC. 1985. Liver flukes (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) in cats. J Am Hosp Assoc 21:269-274.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Braun M. 1901. Ein neues </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Dicrocoelium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> aus der Gallenblase der Zibethkatze. Centralbl Bakt Parasitenk Infekt 30:700-702.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Eckerlin RP, Leigh WH. 1962. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Kossack, 1910 (Trematoda: Dicrocoelidae) in South Florida. J Parasitol 48(suppl)49.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Evans JW, Green PE. 1978. Preliminary evaluation of four anthelmintics against the cat liver fluke, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Austral Vet J 54:454-455.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Ikede BO, Losos GJ. Isoun TT. 1971. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> infection in cats in Nigeria. Vet Rec 89:635-638.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kossack W. 1910. Neue Distomem. Centralbl Bakt Parasitenk Infekt 56:114-</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Looss A. 1907. Ueber einige sum Teil neue Distomen der europäischen Fauna. Centralbl Bakt Parasitenk Infekt 43:604-613.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Maldonado JF. 1945. The life history and biology of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Kossack, 1910 (Trematoda: Dicrocoelidae). Puerto Rico J Pub Hlth trop Med 21:17-60.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Palumbo NE, Taylor D, Perri SF. 1976. Evaluation of fecal technics for the diagnosis of cat liver fluke infection. Lab An Sci 26:490-493.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Purvis, GB. 1931. The species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in felines. Vet Rec 11:228-229.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Purvis GB. 1933. The excretory system of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Braun, 1901); syn. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>P</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Kossack, 1910); and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>P</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>planicipitis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Cameron, 1928). Vet Rec 13:565-</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Robinson VB, Ehrenford FA. 1962. Hepatic lesions associated with liver fluke (</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">) infection in a cat. Am J Vet Res 23:1300-1303.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Taylor D, Perri SF. 1977. Experimental infection of cats with the liver fluke </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Am J Vet Res 38:51-54.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Yamaguti S. 1958. </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Systema Helminthum, The Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates.</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Interscience, New York.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 2-34.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> adult collected from the bile duct of a cat in West Hollywood, Florida, USA. Note the vitellaria along the lateral margins at midbody, the paired anterior testes in the anterior third of the body, and the extensive uterus filled with eggs.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 2-35.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Eggs of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Platynosomum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>concinnum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from the feces of a naturally infected cat from the Florida Keys (photograph supplied by Dr. Robert Foley).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 2-36. </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Section of the liver showing the presence of flukes within a dilated bile duct.</span></span></p> &nbsp;
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