Revision for “Episthmium caninum” created on June 18, 2014 @ 12:50:08

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Episthmium caninum
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Episthmium caninum</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Verma, 1935) Chatterji, 1954</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Epi</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (dorsal) + </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>isthmium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (constriction) [for the break in the spines around the mouth] and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> for the canine host</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Episthochasmus caninum</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Verma, 1935; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Echinochasmus corvus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> (Bhalerao, 1926) Gupte and Pande, 1963. Some consider </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Episthmium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> a subgenus of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Echinochasmus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">; Gupta and Pande (1963) thought this parasite to be synonymous with the species occurring in the crow.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This worm was originally described from dogs in Calcutta (Verma, 1935). This fluke has also been rarely reported from the cat (Pande, 1973).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> A rare parasite of cats reported form Lucknow India (Pande, 1973).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Small intestine.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This worm is elongate, measuring 1 to 2 mm in length. The genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Episthmium</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> differs from </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Echinochasmus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in that the vitelline follicles extend anterior to the ventral sucker.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The eggs are 80 to 85 µm long by 63 to 66 µm wide.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Not definitely known, probably utilizes fish much in the same manner as </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Echinochasmus perfoliatus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Thought to be asymptomatic.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably praziquantel, but not reported.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats probably become infected by eating raw fish; it may be that the normal host is a bird such as the crow (Gupta and Pande, 1963).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None. Although other hosts are infected, the major means of infection is through the ingestion of the fish intermediate host which requires that the appropriate snail also be available. Thus, infection of these other hosts will typically only occur in the wild.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None known.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably prevention of the ingestion of raw fish.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES:</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Gupta VP, Pande BP. 1963. On a trematode of the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Echinochasmus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Dietz, 1909, with remarks on the species occurring in Indian carnivores. Parasitology 53:169-175.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Pande KC. 1973. Studies on some known and unknown trematode parasites. Ind J Zootomy 14:197-219.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Verma SC. 1935. Studies on the Indian species of the genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Echinochasmus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Part I. and on an allied new genus </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Episthochasmus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. Proc Ind Acad sci 1:837-856.</span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 12:50:08 Anastasia Bowman
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