Revision for “Haplorchis taichui” created on June 18, 2014 @ 13:06:26

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Haplorchis taichui
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<p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><i><b>Haplorchis taichui</b></i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b> (Nishigori, 1924) Witenberg, 1930</b></span></span></p> <p align="CENTER"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: large;"><b>(Figure 2-23)</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>ETYMOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = single testis and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>taichui</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> = for Dr. Taichu</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>SYNONYMS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Monorchotrema yokogawai</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Katsuta, 1932; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Monorchotrema taihokui</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Nishigori, 1924; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Monorchotrema taihokui</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Africa and Garcia, 1935; </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis rayi</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Saxena, 1955.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HISTORY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This fluke was originally described from specimens collected from a night heron, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Nycticorax nycticorax</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> in Taiwan. Experimental infections has been produced in human beings, dogs, cats, and mice (Faust and Nishigori, 1926).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> This trematode has a wide distribution throughout Asia and the Mediterranean that is very similar to that of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis yokogawai</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> although it has not been observed in Australia (Pearson, 1964).</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LOCATION IN HOST:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Small intestine.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>PARASITE IDENTIFICATION: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis taichui</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> differs from the other species of </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> found in the cat in that the ventral sucker is covered with a small number (12 to 16) of large spines (25 to 30 µm long) rather than with hooks as in </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis pumilio</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> or a many small spines as in </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis yokogawai</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The species </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis taichui</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is a small fluke that is rather wide, 0.45 to 0.89 mm long by 0.21 to 0.32 mm wide. The eggs measure 24 to 28 µm by 12 to 15 µm.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>LIFE CYCLE: </b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The life cycle has elucidated by the feeding of infected brackish-water mullet to human beings, dogs, and cats (Faust and Nishigori, 1926). The snail host in Taiwan is </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Melania reiniana</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. The fish hosts in Taiwan with members of the Cyprinidae, Siluridae, and Colitidae. In Palestine, Witenberg (1929) found the infected fish to be of the genera </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Barbus, Tilapia,</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Mugil</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Not reported but hought to be asymptomatic.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>TREATMENT:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Probably praziquantel, but not reported.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>EPIZOOTIOLOGY:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Cats become infected by eating raw fish. Other hosts that ingest infected raw fish are also likely to become infected. The normal natural hosts are probably piscivorous birds.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> None known; however, due to the requirements for two intermediate hosts, it is unlikely that an infected cat would pose a direct threat to other animals.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>HAZARD TO HUMANS:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> Humans have been infected (Kliks and Tantachamrun, 1974) in Thailand by the ingestion of the infected fish intermediate hosts.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>CONTROL/PREVENTION:</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> The prevention of the ingestion of raw fish.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>REFERENCES</b></span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Faust EC, Nishigori M. 1926. The life cycles of two new species of Heterophyidae parasitic in mammals and birds. J Parasitol 13:91-128.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Kliks M, Tantachamrun T. 1974. Heterophyid (Trematoda) parasites of cats in North Thailand, with notes on a human case found at necropsy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 5:547-555.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Witenberg, G. 1929. Studies on the trematode family Heterophyidae. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 23:131-239.</span></span></p> <p align="JUSTIFY"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><b>Figure 2-23.</b></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Haplorchis</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>taichui</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> from a kite, </span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>Milvus</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>migrans</i></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;">, in Egypt.*</span></span></p>
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June 18, 2014 @ 13:06:26 Anastasia Bowman
June 13, 2014 @ 15:49:54 Anastasia Bowman