Clinostoma kalappahi Bhalerao, 1947
ETYMOLOGY: Clino (bent) + stoma (mouth) and Kalappah for Dr. Kalappah.
HISTORY: First described by Dr. Bhalerao (1947), these flukes were originally collected from the mouth of a cat in India by Dr. Belliappa. This cat had been treated a year previously for the same condition by another veterinarian. A second cat treated by Dr. Belliappa was found to have about 40 trematodes under its tongues and on the sides of its mouth and was noticed to be holding its mouth open.
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION: India.
LOCATION IN HOST: Mouth.
PARASITE IDENTIFICATION: The description of this trematode by Bhalerao is insufficient for discrimination between this and Clinostomum falsatum. Based on the original description of Belliappa, it would appear that these flukes are larger than those recovered from cats in South Africa.
LIFE CYCLE: The life cycle of Clinostomum kalappahi has not been elucidated. See Clinostomum falsatum for a general description.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PATHOGENESIS: The clinical presentation has been described by Belliappa, 1944). Historically, cats may present with anorexia and depression. The temperature is usually normal. Microscopic examination of the feces is usually negative. Cats will champ their jaws often suggestive of some foreign body stuck up inside the mouth and hypersalivation may occur. On oral examination, a large number of papillomatous outgrowths may be present under the tongue on either side of the frenulum. The growths may reach an inch in length. Slight movements may be seen at the free end of the growths, and parasites (up to twenty) may be removed with forceps.
TREATMENT: Physical removal.
EPIZOOTIOLOGY: Cats become infected by eating fish containing the metacercariae. The flukes are capable of developing to the adult stage in a few days.
HAZARD TO OTHER ANIMALS: None.
HAZARD TO HUMANS: None.
CONTROL/PREVENTION: Prevent cats from eating raw fish.
Belliappa AB. 1944. On a species of Clinostomum in a cat. Indian Vet J. 21:101-102.
Bhalerao AB. 1947. Clinostomum kalappahi n.sp. (Trematoda) from the mouth of cats in the Coorg. Helm Abst 16:No. 576c.